In April 2009, China announced its ambitious Health Reform Plan. In March 2010, the United States passed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). What major progress has been made and problems encountered in the reform implementation process? What major Chinese and global experiences can be distilled for informing future evidence-based policy making and health improvement? Informed answers to these questions would be beneficial to the two countries and beyond. The annual China-U.S. Health Summit was initiated against such a dropbox, aimed to bring together health sector leaders from China, the United States, and many other countries around the world to share perspectives and collaborate. China Initiative has successfully held the inaugural China-U.S. Health Summit in Boston in 2011 and the second China-U.S. Health Summit in Beijing in 2012.