Core B: Particle Technology and Monitoring

ABSTRACT

The objectives of the Particle Technology and Monitoring Core will be to support the five projects of the proposed Center by: i) providing exposure and monitoring technologies, and; ii) conducting sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous co-pollutants.

Project 1: The Core will conduct ambient and indoor monitoring. Ambient monitoring, to be conducted at the Boston HSPH Supersite will include measurements of particle mass (PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10), black carbon (BC), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), sulfate, nitrate, and particle count (PC). Indoor air measurements will be conducted at the home of each Project 1 participant. A micro-environmental automated particle sampler will be used to collect one-week integrated indoor samples for PM2.5 mass, elements, inorganic ions, and BC.

Project 2: The Core will use two modified passenger buses to expose human subjects to traffic-related emissions. One bus will be used for exposure to gases plus particles, and the other for exposure to filtered ambient air (gases only). The Core will also employ two portable carts for "in bus" monitoring, with instruments for both continuous and integrated measurements of PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5-10 mass, total particle counts, BC, O3, NO2, SO2, CO, NMHC, temperature, and relative humidity.

Project 3: Human exposures to CAPs will be conducted using concentrators for coarse, fine, and ultrafine ambient particles. In addition to exposure generation and characterization (described below), the Core will provide both multi-pollutant personal exposure monitoring (PM2.5, OC, EC, SO42-, NO2) and exposure characterization.

Project 4: The Core will generate CAPs exposures for the animal PM toxicology study. A high-volume pre-collected ambient particle sampling system will be used, in parallel with the animal exposures, to collect ambient particles for in vitro toxicological tests. Characterization of animal exposures (described below) will also be the responsibility of the Core.

Project 5: The technologies to produce exposures of both primary and secondary particles and gases originating from mobile sources, using emissions from a traffic tunnel ventilation shaft, will be provided by the Core. In addition to the exposure generation, the Core will characterize exposures (as described below) and provide ambient, emissions, and reaction monitoring. This will include: SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, size distribution, O3, SO2, CO, NOx, methane, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC).

Exposure characterization for Projects 3, 4, and 5 will include: i) integrated sampling for PM2.5, OC, EC, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, organic speciation (PAH, aliphatic aldehydes), trace elements, NH3 and gas phase aldehydes; and ii) continuous monitoring for PM2.5, BC, particle size distribution, total particle count, O3, SO2, CO, NOx, methane, and NMHC.

1. OBJECTIVES

The objectives of the Particle Technology and Monitoring Core will be to support all five projects of the proposed Center, by: