- Worcester Heart Attack Study
- Eastern Massachusetts Pollution Study
- Normative Aging Study
- Predicting Ground Level Air Pollution from Satellite Data
- Bicycle Monitoring Study
Worcester Heart Attack Study
We geocoded subjects in the Worcester Heart Attack Study, and selected geocoded controls from town records. We used these data and multilevel Poisson and Cox models to investigate the spatial distribution of myocardial infarction incidence rates, the role of contextual socio-economic factors in explaining that spatial distribution, the spatial distribution of survival rates among persons discharged alive after their myocardial infarction, and the role of contextual socio-economic factors in explaining that spatial distribution. We also conducted air pollution monitoring at a wide range of locations in the Worcester metropolitan area and used GIS variables to develop predictive models of pollution concentrations as a function of population density, distance to roads, estimated traffic count, land use data, etc. We investigated whether long term concentrations of air pollution are associated with the risk of myocardial infarction, or with survival among those discharged alive from their myocardial infarction, and whether pollution exposure explains some of the social gradient in risk.
Using data from multiple personal exposure studies, plus several other studies that have collected pollution data at locations in Eastern Massachusetts, we will develop predictive models of pollution concentrations as a function of GIS derived variables such as population density, distance to roads, estimated traffic count, land use data, etc. We obtained from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health data from birth certificates for all live births in the area for five years, as well as all deaths. These were geocoded to latitude and longitude. We then merged in block group and tract level data on socio-economic factors. We will examine whether estimated pollution exposure is associated with birthweight, gestational age, small for gestational age, and low birthweight using the birth data. We will also examine the role of contextual level SES variables in explaining the same outcome, the independent explanatory effect of block group vs tract data, and the extent to which measures of physical environment (pollution) explain some of the social gradient in outcome. Using the death data, we will investigate whether rates of death for causes are related to pollution exposure, and again whether pollution explains some of the social gradient in death rate. Finally, we will select controls matched on age and sex, geocode them and estimate their exposure, and repeat the analysis as a case-control study.
The normative aging study is a long term prospective cohort study of approximately 2500 persons who were free of disease in the early 1970’s, and who have been followed since then. Using GIS derived exposure data and address history, we are estimating cumulative exposure in each participant.
One measure of exposure we are using is daily black carbon concentrations predicted by a statistical model that uses monitoring data, meteorological data and covariates derived from GIS data. We are investigating the association of air pollution with myocardial infarction, COPD, and death.
Several researchers have been working on developing models to predict daily PM2.5 concentrations from satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. Some references discussing this work are:
Paciorek CJ, Liu Y, HEI Health Review Committee. Assessment and statistical modeling of the relationship between remotely sensed aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 in the eastern United States. Res Rep Health Eff Inst. 2012 May;(167):5-83; discussion 85-91.
Kloog I et al. Assessing temporally and spatially resolved PM2.5 exposures for epidemiological studies using satellite aerosol optical depth measurements. Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 6267-6275.
Chudnovsky A. et al. Prediction of daily fine particulate matter concentrations using aerosol optical depth retrievals from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 62 (2012) 1022-1031.
Chudnosky A. et al. Spatial scales of pollution from variable resolution satellite imaging. Environmental Pollution 172 (2013) 131-138.
A mobile, multi-pollutant monitoring station was designed and field tested to measure traffic-related air pollution exposure generally and also specifically for cyclists. The monitoring station is on a trailer that can be towed by a bicyclist. Cyclist air pollution exposures measurements were made across multiple types of bike routes and traffic conditions in an urban setting.
Last modified 1/7/2013