Federal Programs for Bicycle and Pedestrian Project Funding
Transportation Enhancements (TE): The primary source of funding for bicycle and pedestrian improvements. FHWA Factsheet on Highway Provisions: Transportation Enhancements Program.
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ): Primarily used for general air-quality improvement projects; also used for bicycle facilities, pedestrian walkways and projects promoting safe bicycle use.
Surface Transportation Program (STP): In addition to funding motorized transportation, provides funds for independent bicycle and pedestrian projects.
High Priority Projects(HPP): Earmarked projects identified in federal legislation
Recreational Trails Program (RTP): Used to develop and maintain trails and facilities for both motorized and non-motorized recreational use. FHWA factsheet on TEA-21 Recreational Trails Program.
Transportation, Community and System Preservation Program (TCSP): Provides funding for innovative projects including bicycling, walking and traffic calming. FHWA TCSP website.
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act(ARRA): Included funding for infrastructure development to stimulate the economy.
Safe Routes to School(SRTS): A national initiative funding infrastructure and encouragement activities to enable all children to walk or bicycle to school.
Nonmotorized Transportation Pilot Program (NTPP): Funded the improvement of bicycle and pedestrian networks in 4 communities to demonstrate the transportation load that walking and bicycling can support.
As shown in Figure 2, most funding for bicycle and pedestrian improvement projects was provided through the Transportation Enhancements (TE) program. Other important federal sources of transportation funding included the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ), and the Surface Transportation Program (STP). The FY 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding represents 7% of the 1992-2009 total. Safe Routes to School (SRTS) became an important source of funds after 2005. Smaller percentages of funding were provided via the Recreational Trails Program (RTP), High Priority Projects (HPP), and the Transportation, Community and System Preservation Program (TCSP).