A boy riding home from school on his bike.

Safe Routes to School Glossary

Federal Transporation Funding: Glossary

Rural: Counties that are not in a metro area and that do not contain an urban area of at least 10,000 people (“non-core counties”). Source: 2003 Urban Influence Codes from the US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
Average distance to school: Population-weighted average distance from census block group centroids to the nearest school in the contiguous U.S. Source: Common Core of Data, 2004-2005 National Center for Education Statistics and 2000 U.S. Census
Poverty: Living in a household with income below the poverty level in 1999 ($16,895 for a family of four). Source: 2000 U.S. Census
Low resource counties: Counties having child poverty rates higher than the state-specific median. Source: 2000 U.S. Census
Funding obligations: Commitments from the federal government to reimburse states for eligible project costs. Source: Fiscal Management Information System (FMIS) of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA).
Other Sources: All other demographic data was obtained from the U.S. Census. Student enrollment data was obtained from the Common Core of Data, 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, from the National Center for Education Statistics.

Improvement Types
18: Planning — For planning related purposes.
15: Preliminary Engineering — For the preparation of plans, specifications, and estimates (PS&E), traffic, and related studies including field inspections, surveys, material testing, and borings.
17: Construction Engineering — Oversight of construction of roadways, structures, and traffic services facilities including additional design work after construction project is let.
28: Facilities for Pedestrians and Bicycles — For independent projects (not part of any other federal-aid highway project) to construct a facility to accommodate bicycle transportation and pedestrians.
21: Safety — For projects or a significant portion of a project that provides features or devices to enhance safety. For example, expenditures on projects designed to improve the safety of at-grade railroad crossings or for the construction of facilities dedicated to the enforcement of vehicle weight regulations.
38: Safety and Education for Pedestrians/Bicyclists — Safety and education for pedestrians and bicyclists
Other (all other codes) — All other improvement type codes.
Source: FMIS 4.0 Users Manual, Appendix F: Improvement Type Codes

Program Codes
SAFETEA-LU legislation required that SRTS programs include both infrastructure and non-infrastructure projects, and devote 10-30% of funding to non-infrastructure activities. Projects can be designated as infrastructure, non-infrastructure, or either.
Non-infrastructure activities include activities to encourage walking and bicycling to school, including public awareness campaigns, traffic education and enforcement, student education, and training of program staff (10-30% of funds).
Infrastructure activities include the planning, design and construction of infrastructure-related projects, such as sidewalk improvements, traffic calming devices, pedestrian/bicycle crossing improvements, and bicycle parking and facilities (70-90% of funds).
Either is a designation used for any activities falling into the discretionary 20% of fund.
Source: FHWA Program Guidance Safe Routes To School: Program Codes – Fiscal Management Information System

Geographic Level of Funding Obligations
“County-Level” projects are associated with a single county, while “Statewide/Multi-County” projects are indicated as being statewide or implemented in multiple counties.