International Health Systems Program  
Department of Global Health and Population
Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health
  Image: China


The IHSP Team

Thomas Bossert

Thomas Bossert
Director of Program
Thomas J. Bossert, Ph.D., is the Director of the International Health Systems Program in the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health.  He has many years of experience in international development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. His specialties include policy analysis, organizational and institutional analysis, decentralization, human resources strategy, public/private relations, community development, regulation, and project design and evaluation. His responsibilities have included providing technical assistance, conducting research, and project management for contracts with various donors including USAID, DFID, World Bank, Interamerican Development Bank, World Health Organization. Dr. Bossert earned his Ph.D. in political science from the University of Wisconsin, Madison and his A.B. from the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. He is fluent in Spanish and has a working knowledge of French.
Dr. Bossert has taught as an assistant professor of political science at Dartmouth College, Swarthmore College, McGill University, Sarah Lawrence College, the University of Wisconsin and Harvard School of Public Health. He has also held research positions at Harvard School of Public Health, Dartmouth College Medical School, and the Land Tenure Center, University of Wisconsin. (view full profile)
Paul Campbell

Paul Campbell
Director of Training
Paul Campbell, Ph.D., has focused much of his professional work on the development of public health and health care systems in this country and abroad. He has worked in many countries and regions of the world, including India, China, Poland, Zimbabwe, Morocco and the Eastern Caribbean. In Eastern Europe, he led a HSPH faculty team from 1995 to 1999 providing technical assistance to Polish national and local health leaders as they guided their nation through large-scale social, political and economic change. His research, technical assistance and training efforts overseas have been funded by unilateral government sponsors including the U.S. Agency for International Development, multilateral institutions like the World Bank, and private donors including the Hinduja Foundation in India.
Dr. Campbell’s health care work in this country for the past 20 years has centered on ambulatory care, primarily “safety net” primary care organizations serving the poor. He and Dr. Robert Hoch have developed and run educational programs for community health center (CHC) medical directors for the past 18 years. He has also completed applied research projects and provided consultation for the Bureau of Primary Care in HRSA as well as many individual provider organizations. For the past 4 years Drs Campbell and Hoch have expended their work with CHCs on the West Coast for the California Endowment and the Tides Foundation, where they have been particularly interested in the implementation of re-engineered primary care frameworks including the Chronic Care Model.
Dr. Campbell’s other major domestic interest lies in disaster or emergency preparedness. He has served as a Co-Investigator of the Harvard SPH Center for Public Health Preparedness since its inception, post 9/11. His responsibility is to lead the Center’s efforts in rural regions, in particular in Maine where he served for five and a half years as President of the Maine Center for Public Health. The Center is addressing a variety of threats from bioterrorism to emerging infections such as avian flu, to natural disasters. Dr. Campbell organized a national conference on rural emergency preparedness issues during 2004, and is currently serving as chair of a national task force addressing the needs of vulnerable populations (such as the poor and minority citizens of New Orleans suffering through Hurricane Katrina). (view full profile)
Yuanli Liu

Yuanli Liu
Senior Lecturer on International Health

Dr. Yuanli Liu, Ph.D., is on the faculty of the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and serves as the founding director of the HSPH China Initiative.  The HSPH China Initiative is a major undertaking aimed at helping advance health and social development in China by carrying out series of applied research studies, regular policy dialogues and senior health executive education programs. Professor Liu has been teaching and conducting research in the areas of health financing and health system analysis since 1994 at Harvard. He was profiled by the HSPH in 2003 as one of six “Future Leaders in Public Health”. He is also an adjunct professor of health policy and management at Tsinghua University and the founding Director of Health and Development Institute at Tsinghua School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing.
Professor Liu has conducted extensive studies on health policy and health system reforms in developing countries, particularly in China.   From 1994 to 2000 he led a 7-year research/intervention study on provision and financing of health care in China’s poverty areas. His work on access to basic health care services by the uninsured helped shape China’s new rural health policies.   Through series of applied health policy studies and senior health policy seminars, Dr. Liu has made important contributions to the process of reforming and developing China’s systems of financing healthcare for the urban poor (MEDICAID), organizing public health surveillance system on HIV/AIDS and other major infectious diseases (also helped organize the national and regional China HIV/AIDS Public Policy Workshops), pricing and distribution of pharmaceuticals and medical services, hospital governance, and delivering community health services. He helped build the China Network of Training and Research of Health Economics and Financing, which is consisted of nine major Chinese universities and the China Health Economics Institute.
Serving as a coordinator for the Global Health Equity Initiative between 1997 and 2000, Dr. Liu collaborated with researchers and policy makers in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Vietnam, and Bangladesh. Dr. Liu is a member of the UN Millennium Development Taskforce on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Basic Medicines. He is a member of the Expert Committee on Health Policy and Management of the Chinese Ministry of Health. He consulted for many international agencies including the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO as well as global corporations.  He is also Vice President of China Foundation, a US-based think-tank.   Dr. Liu received his degrees of Master of Medicine from Tongji Medical University (1987), Master of Science in health policy and management from Harvard University (1988), and PHD in health services research, policy, and administration (focusing on health economics) from University of Minnesota (1995). (view full profile)

Diana Bowser

Diana Bowser
Research Specialist, Politics and Governance

Diana Bowser, Sc.D., M. P. H. is a research associate with the International Health Systems Program of the Harvard School of Public Health. She has over 15 years of experience in health economics, policy analysis, and using econometric methods to assess health system and policy changes in relation to population health and economic development in Latin America, Africa, and the United States. She is especially interested in policy issues and research related to implementation, evaluation, poverty, catastrophic health payments, resource allocation in the health sector, income inequalities and health, health and economic growth, decentralization, and human resources for health. Her responsibilities have included providing technical assistance and conducting research for contracts with various donors including USAID, DFID, WHO, the Global Fund, and the World Bank. Bowser earned her BA from the Harvard College, her MPH from Yale School of Public Health and her Doctor of Science in health economics from the Harvard School of Public Health. She is fluent in Spanish and has lived in Latin America.


Betty McNally

Training and Education Coordinator

Betty McNally, M.Ed., is the trainng and education coordinator of the International Health Systems Program in the Department of Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health. She manages the international executive education courses for the program. She has many years of administrative experience at Harvard University, working with undergraduates as a residential house administrator, and working with graduate students as an academic department administrator. Her research and work as the assistant director of The Principals' Center at Harvard has helped to educate thousands of school leaders, bringing diversity of thought and methods to the profession. She earned her M.Ed. in Counseling and Consulting Psychology at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, and her B.A in Art Education at Herbert H. Lehman College, City University of New York.

Affiliated Faculty and Experts

Bill Hsiao

William Hsiao
K.T. Li Professor Economics

William Hsiao's, Ph.D., health policy research program spans across developed and less developed nations. He and his research team focus their economic studies on five topics:a simulation model of the US health sector;

  1. payment systems for physicians and hospitals;
  2. comparative health care systems;
  3. financing health care in developing nations; and,
  4. interaction between economic development and health care.

Two projects address policy issues of the United States. Hsiao and his colleagues developed a large scale simulation model that intends to assess the fiscal and health impacts produced by various national health insurance plans. Using time series/cross-sectional data, Hsiao's team designed a multi-equation model that employs a number of variables to predict utilization rates and prices of health services. This model also predicts total health expenditures from supply and demand variables, giving special attention to supply variables, such as physician and hospital beds per capita, availability of primary care physicians, and new technologies. The second project further expands his previous work on the resource-based relative value scale (RBRVS) by packaging physician services into episode of illness, and examines variation in resource input costs by quality of service.
Comparing health systems across industrialized nations, Hsiao applies political and economic theories to develop a structural framework of essential elements of health systems. His team uses econometric models to test various hypotheses and to estimate the extent to which each structural element influences health expenditures and health status. Employing his systemic framework, he is assisting Taiwan, Cyprus, Mexico, Colombia, China, and Sweden in their health systems reforms.
In developing nations, Hsiao's research focuses on the development of sustainable financing mechanisms to provide health care for the poor, rural population, and urban workers. With UNICEF's support, he collaborates with seven universities in China to conduct a nationwide study on health care financing and provision for 100 million poor Chinese. Meanwhile, with the support of The World Bank, he is launching a large scale social experiment on community financing for the rural Chinese population, involving 100 communities and two million people. (view full profile)

David Javitch

David Javitch
President, Javitch Associates

David Javitch, Ph.D., is an organizational psychologist and award-winning faculty member at Harvard University and Boston University. Dr. David Javitch is founder and president of Javitch Associates in suburban Boston.  As a management specialist, he combines field-proven managerial and psychological methods to enable individuals, teams, and departments to increase their effectiveness and contribute to an organization’s bottom line success. 
Recognized nationally and internationally, the spotlight shines on Javitch’s work in both the academic and business worlds in the fields of assessment, consultation/coaching, training, and public speaking.  Javitch’s training and consultation practice includes a diverse client base spanning many industries and many countries.  With more than 25 years of experience working with executives among various industries, he is an internationally recognized author, keynote speaker, and consultant on key management and leadership issues.
David has received the “Most Inspirational Instructor Award” from Harvard’s School of Public Health.  In addition, he has earned the “Excellence in Teaching” award four times at Boston University’s School of Public Health.  Javitch also teaches at BU’s School of Management and the Medical School.  He has been a Visiting Professor at Alaska Pacific University in Anchorage, Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland.  He has also served as a consultant to the Minister of Health in Serbia in a program under the auspices of the European Union.  The American Management Association and Dun and Bradstreet’s Education Services Foundation have repeatedly turned to him to conduct their seminars where he always receives accolades.
Dr. Javitch has published written works that include Back to Basics: Let’s Look for Success; Task Force/Project Management: A Guide to Managers on the Line; Power Up: Influential Leadership, and How to Achieve Power in a Power-Driven Society: A Five-Step Approach.
His consulting work focuses on job behavior issues that affect leadership, teambuilding, power, conflict and change.  A former French teacher, he conducts leadership seminars both in English and in French for executives around the world.    David, who received his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University, is a board member of the Institute of Management Consultants, the Men’s Associates for the Hebrew Rehabilitation Center of the Aged, and AIPAC.  He currently is a member of the American Psychological Association and is a past member of the American Society for Training and Development.  Previously he sat on the board of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, the Small Business Executive Board of the Greater Boston Chamber of Commerce, and the President’s Circle at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. (view full profile)
Ann Lawthers
Director of Quality Improvement
University of Massachusetts
Dr. Ann G. Lawthers Sc.D., has been involved in quality measurement and improvement research and training for many years. She was a faculty member in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard School of Public Health until recently; she served as associate director of a research center investigating quality of care issues. She is now principally based at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Dr. Lawthers has conducted quality improvement training internationally in both Egypt and Poland. In Poland, Dr. Lawthers worked with local experts and government officials to design and implement an outpatient quality monitoring system based on patient surveys for the city of Krakow, Poland.

Leonard Marcus

Leonard Marcus
Lecturer on Public Health Practice

Leonard Marcus, Ph.D., is founding Director of the Program for Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH). Dr. Marcus is also founding Co-Director of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative, a collaborative effort of HSPH and the Kennedy School of Government, developed in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the White House, and the Department of Homeland Security, and the Department of Defense.
In recent years, Dr. Marcus has played a leading national and international role in terrorism preparedness and emergency response, developing the conceptual and pragmatic basis for "connectivity" — the coordination of "people, organizations, resources, and information to best catch, contain, and control a terrorist or other public health threat," and "meta-leadership"- "overarching leadership that strategically links the work of different agencies and levels of government."
Dr. Marcus is lead author of the primary text in the field, Renegotiating Health Care: Resolving Conflict to Build Collaboration. The book was selected as co-recipient of the Center for Public Resources Institute for Dispute Resolution 1995 "Book Prize Award for Excellence in Alternative Dispute Resolution". In 1994, he co-authored Mediating Bioethical Disputes: A Practical Guide. He has written for Newsweek, The Boston Globe, the AMNews as well as a number of scholarly journals.
Dr. Marcus has directed numerous projects intended to advance development of the negotiation, collaborative problem solving, and conflict resolution field applied to health related issues. At the School of Public Health, he has received funding support from, among others, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the National Institute for Dispute Resolution, the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to develop a curriculum, research agenda, and conceptual and applied framework for the field.
Other current and recent projects include collaboration with the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation on facilitating national efforts to improve the quality of health care, the American Association of Retired Persons on health care alternative dispute resolution, the New England Healthcare Institute on innovations in health care research, and the Markle Foundation on development of the electronic medical record.
Dr. Marcus teaches HSPH courses on negotiation and conflict resolution and leadership.
His research interests include: factors associated with the coordination of effort for national and international terrorism response strategies; implications of conflict in health care services; the uses of mediation for resolving health disputes; the contributions of conflict resolution to error prevention in health care; as well as on the role health can play in resolving larger social conflict.
Dr. Marcus has developed a number of practical applications of mediation and conflict resolution. He has consulted to, trained, or provided executive coaching to leading health care organizations, including Kaiser-Permanente Health Plan, the Beth Israel-Deaconness Medical Center, Clarion Health Systems, the board and executive leadership of the American Medical Association, the American Hospital Association, the American Association of Blood Banks, and the National Practitioners Data Bank among many others. In the 1990s, he collaborated with the Massachusetts Board of Registration in Medicine to develop the Voluntary Mediation Program, the first initiative of its kind to mediate medical practice disputes directly between patients and physicians under the auspices of a state agency. His international work includes assignments in the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. His work has been profiled on National Public Radio, in the Washington Post, AMA News, Health Forum, Hippocrates, CNN, Modern Healthcare, CNBC, Hospitals, and the Boston Globe.
Dr. Marcus completed his doctoral studies at The Heller School of Brandeis University. He was selected as a Fellow for the Kellogg National Leadership Program from 1986-1989. (view full profile)

Marc Mitchell

Marc Mitchell
Lecturer on International Health

Marc Mitchell, M.S., M.D., is a pediatrician and management specialist with 30 years of experience in the design and delivery of health care services. His research interests focus on the management of health care services and how changes in design and implementation can achieve improvements in both efficiency and effectiveness of health care.
One area of research is on the implementation of Reproductive Health and Child Health programs, and how managers can best use their scarce resources to design and manage effective programs that meet the needs of their clients. This research has led to studies of costs and prioritization of services, and tools for effective implementation.
A related area of research is how to improve the overall performance of health systems at the district level where health officials are typically overwhelmed by the managerial demands they face. This issue has been accelerated by the promotion of health sector reforms which often include decentralization, privatization, and integration of programs. At the same time, numerous disease control programs are being promoted, making it difficult for district staff to set priorities and achieve results. This research has led to the design of a planning tool or matrix which is now being used on a trial basis in several countries to test its effectiveness.
Dr. Mitchell's most recent work is in the application of mobile technology to improve health care delivery. He is currently leading a project that used hand held computers (PDA) to screen AIDS patients for symptoms and side effects of ARVs and is working on the application of this technology to screen and treat children. This work, originally done in South Africa, is now being applied to care and treatment centers in Tanzania. Another related area is the application of hand held technology to improve the use of the IMCI child health protocols. Our initial studies show that health providers more closely follow electronic protocols leading to better quality of care and better health outcomes. (view full profile)


Michael Reich

Taro Takemi Professor of International Health

Michael Reich's, Ph.D., research program addresses the political dimensions of public health policy. He is particularly interested in health and population policies of poor countries, the politics of policy-making processes, and pharmaceutical policy.
A major area of Dr. Reich's research examines access to medicines in developing countries. In 2002, he edited a book on public-private partnerships for public health (distributed by Harvard University Press). The volume includes case studies of partnerships involving specific diseases such as trachoma and river blindness, international organizations such as the World Health Organization, multinational pharmaceutical companies, and products such as medicines and vaccines. Individual chapters draw lessons from successful partnerships as well as troubled ones in order to help guide efforts to reduce global health disparities. In an article in Science (2000), he analyzed how public policies can be designed to address the global drug gap, the disparity in access to medicines between rich and poor countries. One of his previous research projects examined factors that affected access to praziquantel, the drug of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis. The study showed how interactions among four actors (pharmaceutical producers, international agencies, non-governmental agencies, and national governments) affected praziquantel availability in poor countries. He is currently working on a book (coauthored with Laura Frost) on strategies for improving access to health technologies in poor countries.
Dr. Reich has conducted various studies on the political economy of health policy reform, in both developed and developing countries. He has developed an applied research tool (a Windows-based software program) for analyzing the political dimensions of public policy. This tool, called PolicyMaker, provides a computer-assisted guide for strategic thinking about policy reform. The software leads the user through a step-by-step analysis of the policy content, positions and power of major players, opportunities and obstacles to policy change, and strategies for change. The method can be used for health policy reform as well as other areas of public policy. A free version of the software is available on the internet ( ).
Dr. Reich and collaborators have applied the method for analyzing health reform issues in more than ten countries, in collaboration with national governments and international agencies. The method is used in policy courses around the world, including the World Bank Flagship Course on Health Sector Reform and Sustainable Financing. He recently coauthored a book, using the materials from this course, on how to improve the performance of health systems, entitled Getting Health Reform Right (by M.J. Roberts, W. Hsiao, P. Berman, and M.R. Reich, Oxford, 2004). He is currently working with the UNFPA to introduce this method of political analysis as a core competency in country offices, to facilitate policy reform related to the agency's mission in reproductive health.
During 2005-2006, while on sabbatical, he was a visiting professor at the National Institute of Public Health, in Cuernavaca, Mexico. During that time, he collaborated on various research projects in Mexico related to his research interests (pharmaceutical policy, health reform, political analysis, and road safety), and he continues working on those themes in Mexico. (view full profile)


Marc Roberts

Professor of Political Economy

Please Note: Professor Roberts is deceased. This profile will be removed in the near future.

Since joining the Harvard faculty in 1969, Marc Roberts, Ph.D.,  has taught economics, statistics, ethics, management, environmental policy and health policy in the Economics Department, the Kennedy School, the Law School and for the last 30 years, at the School of Public Health.  In recent years he has played a leading role in the World Bank’s training efforts on health sector reform around the world—having taught courses and seminars for senior government leaders in nearly thirty countries—and on every continent except Antarctica.
The author or coauthor of five books and numerous professional articles, Professor Roberts’ most recent effort, together with three coauthors from the HSPH faculty, has been  a handbook on health sector reform,  Getting Health Reform Right, which Oxford University Press is about to reissue in paperback.
In the U.S. context Professor Roberts continues as an active consultant helping organizations adjust to changing market conditions. He is also a co-leader of a new school of Public Health initiative on the role of trust in the health care system and how managers can build trust to reinforce their market position.Among his recent work, Prof. Roberts has just coauthored a piece in Lancet on the need for international organizations to move beyond a vertical program focus to a focus on health systems reform, and a piece for the Hastings Center on Bioethics (written jointly with Prof. Norman Daniels) on the ethics of health reform proposals in the U.S. He is currently working on books on the ethics of disaster management and on the ethics of pricing biotech drugs. (view full profile)

Pedro Saturno
Professor of Public Health at the
School of Medicine
in the University of Murcia (Spain)
Pedro Saturno, Ph.D., is a physician and Professor of Public Health at the School of Medicine in the University of Murcia (Spain). He is also Director of a distance-learning Master in Quality Management in Health Services program, currently in its 10th edition. Previously he has served as Deputy Director General for Health Planning and Education at the Spanish Ministry of Health. He has also extensive experience as a consultant in Quality Management for international agencies such as WHO and USAID, and participated in several international Task Forces and Committees on Quality Management, Health Prevention and Education over the last 20 years.

Winnie Yip
Adjunct Associate Professor of International Health Policy
and Economics

Winnie Yip's, Ph.D., major research interests include Her major research interests include:

  1. economic development and health/well being in developing countries;
  2. international health system assessment and designs and
  3. performance-based provider payment.

She teaches Econometrics for Health Policy and International Health Economics.
Dr. Yip directs an interdisciplinary study to examine the causal and dynamic relationships among social, cultural, psychological and economic determinants of health in rural China, using a longitudinal study design.
She organizes an interdisciplinary seminar series on economic development and health/well-being that bring together a core group of researchers from anthropology, economics, psychology and sociology to discuss theories, concepts, methodologies, data and empirical findings that different disciplines employ, and can be used to further our understanding of how economic growth affect people's health and well-being.
She is the co-principle investigator of the Health Care System Study of Hong Kong. This project provides evidence-based assessment of the current health care system of Hong Kong and develops alternative health care financing/delivery options.
She is currently co-leading the Evaluation of Taiwan's National Health Insurance System project to systematically assess the impact of Taiwan's NHI on access to health care, health outcomes, public satisfaction and distribtuion of benefits. This project also examines performance-based provider payment methods in Taiwan. She has also evaluated China's health reform initiatives, including the experiments in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities, and other community-based health schemes in rural regions.
She was a participating author of the World Bank's publication, Issues and Options for China: Financing Health Care.
She has conducted econometric studies to ascertain the major determinants in patients' choice of public and private providers in Egypt, Cyprus and Hong Kong.
In Thailand, she examines the impact of capitation payment on provider behavior, hospital internal management, and provider network building.

  IHSP Team

IHSP Goals and Approach

Major Areas of Focus

Country Experience

IHSP Tools

Innovative Training Programs

International Collaboration

Funding Sources