The IHSP Team
Director of Program
J. Bossert, Ph.D., is the Director of the International
Health Systems Program in the Department of Global Health and Population
at the Harvard School of Public Health. He has many years of
experience in international development in Latin America and the Caribbean,
Africa, Asia and Central and Eastern Europe. His specialties include
policy analysis, organizational and institutional analysis, decentralization,
human resources strategy, public/private relations, community development,
regulation, and project design and evaluation. His responsibilities
have included providing technical assistance, conducting research,
and project management for contracts with various donors including
USAID, DFID, World Bank, Interamerican Development Bank, World Health
Organization. Dr. Bossert earned his Ph.D. in political science from
the University of Wisconsin, Madison and his A.B. from the Woodrow
Wilson School at Princeton University. He is fluent in Spanish and
has a working knowledge of French.
Dr. Bossert has taught as an assistant professor of political science
at Dartmouth College, Swarthmore College, McGill University, Sarah
Lawrence College, the University of Wisconsin and Harvard School of
Public Health. He has also held research positions at Harvard School
of Public Health, Dartmouth College Medical School, and the Land Tenure
Center, University of Wisconsin.
Director of Training
has focused much of his professional work on the development
of public health and health care systems in this country and abroad.
He has worked in many countries and regions of the world, including
India, China, Poland, Zimbabwe, Morocco and the Eastern Caribbean.
In Eastern Europe, he led a HSPH faculty team from 1995 to 1999 providing
technical assistance to Polish national and local health leaders as
they guided their nation through large-scale social, political and
economic change. His research, technical assistance and training efforts
overseas have been funded by unilateral government sponsors including
the U.S. Agency for International Development, multilateral institutions
like the World Bank, and private donors including the Hinduja Foundation
Dr. Campbell’s health care work in this country for the past
20 years has centered on ambulatory care, primarily “safety
net” primary care organizations serving the poor. He and Dr.
Robert Hoch have developed and run educational programs for community
health center (CHC) medical directors for the past 18 years. He has
also completed applied research projects and provided consultation
for the Bureau of Primary Care in HRSA as well as many individual
provider organizations. For the past 4 years Drs Campbell and Hoch
have expended their work with CHCs on the West Coast for the California
Endowment and the Tides Foundation, where they have been particularly
interested in the implementation of re-engineered primary care frameworks
including the Chronic Care Model.
Dr. Campbell’s other major domestic interest lies in disaster
or emergency preparedness. He has served as a Co-Investigator of the
Harvard SPH Center for Public Health Preparedness since its inception,
post 9/11. His responsibility is to lead the Center’s efforts
in rural regions, in particular in Maine where he served for five
and a half years as President of the Maine Center for Public Health.
The Center is addressing a variety of threats from bioterrorism to
emerging infections such as avian flu, to natural disasters. Dr. Campbell
organized a national conference on rural emergency preparedness issues
during 2004, and is currently serving as chair of a national task
force addressing the needs of vulnerable populations (such as the
poor and minority citizens of New Orleans suffering through Hurricane
(view full profile)
Senior Lecturer on International Health
Yuanli Liu, Ph.D., is on the
faculty of the Department of Global Health and Population at the
Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and serves as the founding
director of the HSPH China Initiative. The HSPH China Initiative
is a major undertaking aimed at helping advance health and social
development in China by carrying out series of applied research
studies, regular policy dialogues and senior health executive education
programs. Professor Liu has been teaching and conducting research
in the areas of health financing and health system analysis since
1994 at Harvard. He was profiled by the HSPH in 2003 as one of six
“Future Leaders in Public Health”. He is also an adjunct
professor of health policy and management at Tsinghua University
and the founding Director of Health and Development Institute at
Tsinghua School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing.
Professor Liu has conducted extensive studies on health policy and
health system reforms in developing countries, particularly in China.
From 1994 to 2000 he led a 7-year research/intervention study on
provision and financing of health care in China’s poverty
areas. His work on access to basic health care services by the uninsured
helped shape China’s new rural health policies.
Through series of applied health policy studies and senior health
policy seminars, Dr. Liu has made important contributions to the
process of reforming and developing China’s systems of financing
healthcare for the urban poor (MEDICAID), organizing public health
surveillance system on HIV/AIDS and other major infectious diseases
(also helped organize the national and regional China HIV/AIDS Public
Policy Workshops), pricing and distribution of pharmaceuticals and
medical services, hospital governance, and delivering community
health services. He helped build the China Network of Training and
Research of Health Economics and Financing, which is consisted of
nine major Chinese universities and the China Health Economics Institute.
Serving as a coordinator for the Global Health
Equity Initiative between 1997 and 2000, Dr. Liu collaborated with
researchers and policy makers in Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa,
Vietnam, and Bangladesh. Dr. Liu is a member of the UN Millennium
Development Taskforce on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Basic
Medicines. He is a member of the Expert Committee on Health Policy
and Management of the Chinese Ministry of Health. He consulted for
many international agencies including the World Bank, Asian Development
Bank, UNDP, UNICEF, WHO as well as global corporations. He
is also Vice President of China Foundation, a US-based think-tank.
Dr. Liu received his degrees of Master of Medicine from Tongji Medical
University (1987), Master of Science in health policy and management
from Harvard University (1988), and PHD in health services research,
policy, and administration (focusing on health economics) from University
of Minnesota (1995). (view
Research Specialist, Politics and Governance
Bowser, Sc.D., M. P. H. is
a research associate with the International Health Systems Program
of the Harvard School of Public Health. She has over 15 years of
experience in health economics, policy analysis, and using econometric
methods to assess health system and policy changes in relation to
population health and economic development in Latin America, Africa,
and the United States. She is especially interested in policy issues
and research related to implementation, evaluation, poverty, catastrophic
health payments, resource allocation in the health sector, income
inequalities and health, health and economic growth, decentralization,
and human resources for health. Her responsibilities have included
providing technical assistance and conducting research for contracts
with various donors including USAID, DFID, WHO, the Global Fund,
and the World Bank. Bowser earned her BA from the Harvard College,
her MPH from Yale School of Public Health and her Doctor of Science
in health economics from the Harvard School of Public Health. She
is fluent in Spanish and has lived in Latin America.
Training and Education Coordinator
McNally, M.Ed., is the trainng and education coordinator
of the International Health Systems Program in the Department of
Global Health and Population at the Harvard School of Public Health.
She manages the international executive education courses for the
program. She has many years of administrative experience at Harvard
University, working with undergraduates as a residential house administrator,
and working with graduate students as an academic department administrator.
Her research and work as the assistant director of The Principals'
Center at Harvard has helped to educate thousands of school leaders,
bringing diversity of thought and methods to the profession. She
earned her M.Ed. in Counseling and Consulting Psychology at the
Harvard Graduate School of Education, and her B.A in Art Education
at Herbert H. Lehman College, City University of New York.
Affiliated Faculty and Experts
K.T. Li Professor Economics
Hsiao's, Ph.D., health policy
research program spans across developed and less developed nations.
He and his research team focus their economic studies on five
topics:a simulation model of the US health sector;
- payment systems for physicians and hospitals;
- comparative health care systems;
- financing health care in developing nations; and,
- interaction between economic development and health care.
Two projects address policy issues of the United
States. Hsiao and his colleagues developed a large scale simulation
model that intends to assess the fiscal and health impacts produced
by various national health insurance plans. Using time series/cross-sectional
data, Hsiao's team designed a multi-equation model that employs
a number of variables to predict utilization rates and prices
of health services. This model also predicts total health expenditures
from supply and demand variables, giving special attention to
supply variables, such as physician and hospital beds per capita,
availability of primary care physicians, and new technologies.
The second project further expands his previous work on the resource-based
relative value scale (RBRVS) by packaging physician services into
episode of illness, and examines variation in resource input costs
by quality of service.
Comparing health systems across industrialized nations, Hsiao
applies political and economic theories to develop a structural
framework of essential elements of health systems. His team uses
econometric models to test various hypotheses and to estimate
the extent to which each structural element influences health
expenditures and health status. Employing his systemic framework,
he is assisting Taiwan, Cyprus, Mexico, Colombia, China, and Sweden
in their health systems reforms.
In developing nations, Hsiao's research focuses on the development
of sustainable financing mechanisms to provide health care for
the poor, rural population, and urban workers. With UNICEF's support,
he collaborates with seven universities in China to conduct a
nationwide study on health care financing and provision for 100
million poor Chinese. Meanwhile, with the support of The World
Bank, he is launching a large scale social experiment on community
financing for the rural Chinese population, involving 100 communities
and two million people. (view
President, Javitch Associates
Javitch, Ph.D., is an organizational
psychologist and award-winning faculty member at Harvard University
and Boston University. Dr. David Javitch is founder and president
of Javitch Associates in suburban Boston. As a management specialist,
he combines field-proven managerial and psychological methods to enable
individuals, teams, and departments to increase their effectiveness
and contribute to an organization’s bottom line success.
Recognized nationally and internationally, the spotlight shines on
Javitch’s work in both the academic and business worlds in the
fields of assessment, consultation/coaching, training, and public
speaking. Javitch’s training and consultation practice
includes a diverse client base spanning many industries and many countries.
With more than 25 years of experience working with executives among
various industries, he is an internationally recognized author, keynote
speaker, and consultant on key management and leadership issues.
David has received the “Most Inspirational Instructor Award”
from Harvard’s School of Public Health. In addition, he
has earned the “Excellence in Teaching” award four times
at Boston University’s School of Public Health. Javitch
also teaches at BU’s School of Management and the Medical School.
He has been a Visiting Professor at Alaska Pacific University in Anchorage,
Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and Jagiellonian University in Krakow,
Poland. He has also served as a consultant to the Minister of
Health in Serbia in a program under the auspices of the European Union.
The American Management Association and Dun and Bradstreet’s
Education Services Foundation have repeatedly turned to him to conduct
their seminars where he always receives accolades.
Dr. Javitch has published written works that include Back to Basics:
Let’s Look for Success; Task Force/Project Management: A Guide
to Managers on the Line; Power Up: Influential Leadership, and How
to Achieve Power in a Power-Driven Society: A Five-Step Approach.
His consulting work focuses on job behavior issues that affect leadership,
teambuilding, power, conflict and change. A former French teacher,
he conducts leadership seminars both in English and in French for
executives around the world. David, who received
his Ph.D. from The Ohio State University, is a board member of the
Institute of Management Consultants, the Men’s Associates for
the Hebrew Rehabilitation Center of the Aged, and AIPAC. He
currently is a member of the American Psychological Association and
is a past member of the American Society for Training and Development.
Previously he sat on the board of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center,
the Small Business Executive Board of the Greater Boston Chamber of
Commerce, and the President’s Circle at the Beth Israel Deaconess
Medical Center. (view
Director of Quality Improvement
University of Massachusetts
Ann G. Lawthers Sc.D., has been involved in quality measurement
and improvement research and training for many years. She was a faculty
member in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Harvard
School of Public Health until recently; she served as associate director
of a research center investigating quality of care issues. She is
now principally based at the University of Massachusetts Medical School.
Dr. Lawthers has conducted quality improvement training internationally
in both Egypt and Poland. In Poland, Dr. Lawthers worked with local
experts and government officials to design and implement an outpatient
quality monitoring system based on patient surveys for the city of
Lecturer on Public Health Practice
Marcus, Ph.D., is founding Director of the Program
for Health Care Negotiation and Conflict Resolution at the Harvard
School of Public Health (HSPH). Dr. Marcus is also founding Co-Director
of the National Preparedness Leadership Initiative, a collaborative
effort of HSPH and the Kennedy School of Government, developed
in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
the White House, and the Department of Homeland Security, and
the Department of Defense.
In recent years, Dr. Marcus has played a leading national and
international role in terrorism preparedness and emergency response,
developing the conceptual and pragmatic basis for "connectivity"
— the coordination of "people, organizations, resources,
and information to best catch, contain, and control a terrorist
or other public health threat," and "meta-leadership"- "overarching
leadership that strategically links the work of different agencies
and levels of government."
Dr. Marcus is lead author of the primary text in the field, Renegotiating
Health Care: Resolving Conflict to Build Collaboration. The
book was selected as co-recipient of the Center for Public Resources
Institute for Dispute Resolution 1995 "Book Prize Award for Excellence
in Alternative Dispute Resolution". In 1994, he co-authored Mediating
Bioethical Disputes: A Practical Guide. He has written for
Newsweek, The Boston Globe, the AMNews as well as a number of
Dr. Marcus has directed numerous projects intended to advance
development of the negotiation, collaborative problem solving,
and conflict resolution field applied to health related issues.
At the School of Public Health, he has received funding support
from, among others, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation,
the National Institute for Dispute Resolution, the W.K. Kellogg
Foundation, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to develop
a curriculum, research agenda, and conceptual and applied framework
for the field.
Other current and recent projects include collaboration with the
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation on facilitating national efforts
to improve the quality of health care, the American Association
of Retired Persons on health care alternative dispute resolution,
the New England Healthcare Institute on innovations in health
care research, and the Markle Foundation on development of the
electronic medical record.
Dr. Marcus teaches HSPH courses on negotiation and conflict resolution
His research interests include: factors associated with the coordination
of effort for national and international terrorism response strategies;
implications of conflict in health care services; the uses of
mediation for resolving health disputes; the contributions of
conflict resolution to error prevention in health care; as well
as on the role health can play in resolving larger social conflict.
Dr. Marcus has developed a number of practical applications of
mediation and conflict resolution. He has consulted to, trained,
or provided executive coaching to leading health care organizations,
including Kaiser-Permanente Health Plan, the Beth Israel-Deaconness
Medical Center, Clarion Health Systems, the board and executive
leadership of the American Medical Association, the American Hospital
Association, the American Association of Blood Banks, and the
National Practitioners Data Bank among many others. In the 1990s,
he collaborated with the Massachusetts Board of Registration in
Medicine to develop the Voluntary Mediation Program, the first
initiative of its kind to mediate medical practice disputes directly
between patients and physicians under the auspices of a state
agency. His international work includes assignments in the Middle
East, Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean. His work
has been profiled on National Public Radio, in the Washington
Post, AMA News, Health Forum, Hippocrates, CNN, Modern Healthcare,
CNBC, Hospitals, and the Boston Globe.
Dr. Marcus completed his doctoral studies at The Heller School
of Brandeis University. He was selected as a Fellow for the Kellogg
National Leadership Program from 1986-1989.
(view full profile)
Lecturer on International Health
Mitchell, M.S., M.D., is a pediatrician and management
specialist with 30 years of experience in the design and delivery
of health care services. His research interests focus on the management
of health care services and how changes in design and implementation
can achieve improvements in both efficiency and effectiveness of
One area of research is on the implementation of Reproductive Health
and Child Health programs, and how managers can best use their scarce
resources to design and manage effective programs that meet the
needs of their clients. This research has led to studies of costs
and prioritization of services, and tools for effective implementation.
A related area of research is how to improve the overall performance
of health systems at the district level where health officials are
typically overwhelmed by the managerial demands they face. This
issue has been accelerated by the promotion of health sector reforms
which often include decentralization, privatization, and integration
of programs. At the same time, numerous disease control programs
are being promoted, making it difficult for district staff to set
priorities and achieve results. This research has led to the design
of a planning tool or matrix which is now being used on a trial
basis in several countries to test its effectiveness.
Dr. Mitchell's most recent work is in the application of mobile
technology to improve health care delivery. He is currently leading
a project that used hand held computers (PDA) to screen AIDS patients
for symptoms and side effects of ARVs and is working on the application
of this technology to screen and treat children. This work, originally
done in South Africa, is now being applied to care and treatment
centers in Tanzania. Another related area is the application of
hand held technology to improve the use of the IMCI child health
protocols. Our initial studies show that health providers more closely
follow electronic protocols leading to better quality of care and
better health outcomes. (view
Taro Takemi Professor of International Health
Reich's, Ph.D., research program addresses the political
dimensions of public health policy. He is particularly interested
in health and population policies of poor countries, the politics
of policy-making processes, and pharmaceutical policy.
A major area of Dr. Reich's research examines access to medicines
in developing countries. In 2002, he edited a book on public-private
partnerships for public health (distributed by Harvard University
Press). The volume includes case studies of partnerships involving
specific diseases such as trachoma and river blindness, international
organizations such as the World Health Organization, multinational
pharmaceutical companies, and products such as medicines and vaccines.
Individual chapters draw lessons from successful partnerships
as well as troubled ones in order to help guide efforts to reduce
global health disparities. In an article in Science (2000), he
analyzed how public policies can be designed to address the global
drug gap, the disparity in access to medicines between rich and
poor countries. One of his previous research projects examined
factors that affected access to praziquantel, the drug of choice
for treatment of schistosomiasis. The study showed how interactions
among four actors (pharmaceutical producers, international agencies,
non-governmental agencies, and national governments) affected
praziquantel availability in poor countries. He is currently working
on a book (coauthored with Laura Frost) on strategies for improving
access to health technologies in poor countries.
Dr. Reich has conducted various studies on the political economy
of health policy reform, in both developed and developing countries.
He has developed an applied research tool (a Windows-based software
program) for analyzing the political dimensions of public policy.
This tool, called PolicyMaker, provides a computer-assisted guide
for strategic thinking about policy reform. The software leads
the user through a step-by-step analysis of the policy content,
positions and power of major players, opportunities and obstacles
to policy change, and strategies for change. The method can be
used for health policy reform as well as other areas of public
policy. A free version of the software is available on the internet
Dr. Reich and collaborators have applied the method for analyzing
health reform issues in more than ten countries, in collaboration
with national governments and international agencies. The method
is used in policy courses around the world, including the World
Bank Flagship Course on Health Sector Reform and Sustainable Financing.
He recently coauthored a book, using the materials from this course,
on how to improve the performance of health systems, entitled
Getting Health Reform Right (by M.J. Roberts, W. Hsiao, P. Berman,
and M.R. Reich, Oxford, 2004). He is currently working with the
UNFPA to introduce this method of political analysis as a core
competency in country offices, to facilitate policy reform related
to the agency's mission in reproductive health.
During 2005-2006, while on sabbatical, he was a visiting professor
at the National Institute of Public Health, in Cuernavaca, Mexico.
During that time, he collaborated on various research projects
in Mexico related to his research interests (pharmaceutical policy,
health reform, political analysis, and road safety), and he continues
working on those themes in Mexico. (view
of Political Economy
Since joining the Harvard faculty in 1969, Marc
Roberts, Ph.D., has taught economics, statistics, ethics,
management, environmental policy and health policy in the Economics
Department, the Kennedy School, the Law School and for the last
30 years, at the School of Public Health. In recent years
he has played a leading role in the World Bank’s training
efforts on health sector reform around the world—having taught
courses and seminars for senior government leaders in nearly thirty
countries—and on every continent except Antarctica.
The author or coauthor of five books and numerous professional articles,
Professor Roberts’ most recent effort, together with three
coauthors from the HSPH faculty, has been a handbook on health
sector reform, Getting Health Reform Right, which Oxford
University Press is about to reissue in paperback.
In the U.S. context Professor Roberts continues
as an active consultant helping organizations adjust to changing
market conditions. He is also a co-leader of a new school of Public
Health initiative on the role of trust in the health care system
and how managers can build trust to reinforce their market position.Among
his recent work, Prof. Roberts has just coauthored a piece in Lancet
on the need for international organizations to move beyond a vertical
program focus to a focus on health systems reform, and a piece for
the Hastings Center on Bioethics (written jointly with Prof. Norman
Daniels) on the ethics of health reform proposals in the U.S. He
is currently working on books on the ethics of disaster management
and on the ethics of pricing biotech drugs.
(view full profile)
Professor of Public Health at the
School of Medicine
in the University of Murcia (Spain)
Saturno, Ph.D., is a physician and Professor of Public Health
at the School of Medicine in the University of Murcia (Spain). He
is also Director of a distance-learning Master in Quality Management
in Health Services program, currently in its 10th edition. Previously
he has served as Deputy Director General for Health Planning and Education
at the Spanish Ministry of Health. He has also extensive experience
as a consultant in Quality Management for international agencies such
as WHO and USAID, and participated in several international Task Forces
and Committees on Quality Management, Health Prevention and Education
over the last 20 years.
Associate Professor of International Health Policy
Yip's, Ph.D., major research interests include Her major research
- economic development and health/well being in developing countries;
- international health system assessment and designs and
- performance-based provider payment.
She teaches Econometrics for Health Policy and
International Health Economics.
Dr. Yip directs an interdisciplinary study to examine the causal
and dynamic relationships among social, cultural, psychological
and economic determinants of health in rural China, using a longitudinal
She organizes an interdisciplinary seminar series on economic
development and health/well-being that bring together a core group
of researchers from anthropology, economics, psychology and sociology
to discuss theories, concepts, methodologies, data and empirical
findings that different disciplines employ, and can be used to
further our understanding of how economic growth affect people's
health and well-being.
She is the co-principle investigator of the Health Care System
Study of Hong Kong. This project provides evidence-based assessment
of the current health care system of Hong Kong and develops alternative
health care financing/delivery options.
She is currently co-leading the Evaluation of Taiwan's National
Health Insurance System project to systematically assess the impact
of Taiwan's NHI on access to health care, health outcomes, public
satisfaction and distribtuion of benefits. This project also examines
performance-based provider payment methods in Taiwan. She has
also evaluated China's health reform initiatives, including the
experiments in Zhenjiang and Jiujiang cities, and other community-based
health schemes in rural regions.
She was a participating author of the World Bank's publication,
Issues and Options for China: Financing Health Care.
She has conducted econometric studies to ascertain the major determinants
in patients' choice of public and private providers in Egypt,
Cyprus and Hong Kong.
In Thailand, she examines the impact of capitation payment on
provider behavior, hospital internal management, and provider