Fawzi W, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Wei R, Kapiga S, Villamor E, Mwakagile D, Mugusi F, Hertzmark E, Essex M, Hunter DJ. A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. N Engl J Med 2004;351:23-32.

Bussmann H, Novitsky V, Wester W, Peter T, Masupu K, Gabaitiri L, Kim S, Gaseitsiwe S, Ndung’u T, Marlink R, Thior I, Essex M. HIV-1 subtype C drug resistance background among ARV-naïve adults in Botswana. Antiviral Chem Chemother 2005;16:103-15.

Novitsky V, Gilbert P, Shea K, McLane MF, Rybak N, Klein I, Thior I, Ndung’u T, Lee TH, Essex M. Interactive association of proviral load and IFN-γ–secreting T cell reponses in HIV-1C infection. Virology 2006;349:142-55.

Shapiro RL, Thior I, Gilbert PB, Lockman S, Wester C, Smeaton LM, Stevens L, Heymann SJ, Ndung’u T, Gaseitsiwe S, Novitsky V, Makhema J, Lagakos S, Essex M. Maternal single-dose nevirapine versus placebo as part of an antiretroviral strategy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana. AIDS 2006;20:1281-8.

Ndung’u T, Sepako E, McLane MF, Chand F, Bedi K, Gaseitsiwe S, Doualla-Bell F, Peter T, Thior I, Moyo SM, Gilbert P, Novitsky VA, Essex M. HIV-1 subtype C in vitro growth and coreceptor utilization. Virology 2006;347:247-60.

Brenner BG, Oliveira M, Doualla-Bell F, Moisi DD, Ntemgwa M, Frankel F, Essex M, Wainberg MA. HIV-1 subtype C viruses rapidly develop K65R resistance to tenofovir in cell culture. AIDS 2006;20:F9-13.

Thior I, Lockman S, Smeaton LM, Shapiro RL, Wester C, Heymann SJ, Gilbert PB, Stevens L, Peter T, Kim S, van Widenfelt E, Moffat C, Ndase P, Arimi P, Kebaabetswe P, Mazonde P, Makhema J, McIntosh K, Novitsky V, Lee TH, Marlink R, Lagakos S, Essex M, for the Mashi Study Team. Breastfeeding plus infant zidovudine prophylaxis for 6 months vs formula feeding plus infant zidovudine for 1 month to reduce mother-to-child HIV transmission in Botswana. A randomized trial: the Mashi study. JAMA 2006;296:794-805.

Doualla-Bell F, Avalos A, Brenner B, Gaolathe T, Mine M, Gaseitsiwe S, Oliveira M, Moisi D, Ndwapi N, Moffat H, Essex M, Wainberg MA. High prevalence of the K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype C isolates from infected patients in Botswana treated with didanosine-based regimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:4182-5. PMCID: PMC1693987.

Lockman S, Shapiro RL, Smeaton LM, Wester C, Thior I, Stevens L, Chand F, Makhema J, Moffat C, Asmelash A, Ndase P, Arimi P, van Widenfelt E, Mazhani L, Novitsky V, Lagakos S, Essex M. Response to antitretroviral therapy after a single, peripartum dose of nevirapine. N Engl J Med 2007;356:135-47.

Shapiro RL, Lockman S, Kim S, Smeaton L, Rahkola JT, Thior I, Wester C, Moffat C, Arimi P, Ndase P, Asmelash A, Stevens L, Montano M, Makhema J, Essex M, Janoff EN. Infant morbidity, mortality, and breast milk immunologic profiles among breastfeeding HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in Botswana. J Infect Dis 2007;196:562-9.

Redd AD, Avalos A, Essex M. Infection of hematopoietic progenitor cells by HIV-1 subtype C, and its association with anemia in Southern Africa. Blood 2007;110:3143-9.

Rowley CF, Boutwell CL, Lockman S, Essex M. Improvement in allele-specific PCR assay with the use of polymorphism-specific primers for the analysis of minor variant drug resistance in HIV-1 subtype C. J Virol Methods 2008;149:69-75.

Shapiro RL, Smeaton L, Lockman S, Thior I, Rossenkahn R, Wester C, Stevens L, Moffat C, Arimi P, Ndase P, Asmelash A, Leidner J, Novitsky V, Makhema J, Essex M. Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana. J Infect Dis 2009;199:414-8. PMCID: PMC2828251.

Armstrong KL, Lee TH, Essex M. Replicative capacity differences of thymidine analog resistance mutations in subtype B and C HIV-1. J Virol 2009;83:4051-9. PMCID: PMC2668487.

Novitsky V, Wang R, Kebaabetswe L, Greenwald J, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, Musonda R, Woldegabriel E, Lagakos S, Essex M. Better control of early viral replication is associated with slower rate of elicited antiviral antibodies in the detuned EIA during primary HIV-1C infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;52:265-72. PMCID: PMC19525854.

Shipton LK, Wester CW, Stock S, Ndwapi N, Gaolathe T, Thior I, Avalos A, Moffat HJ, Mboya JJ, Widenfelt E, Essex M, Hughes MD, Shapiro RL. Safety and efficacy of nevirapine and efavarinz-based antiretroviral treatment in adults treated for TB-HIV co-infection in Botswana. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2009;13:360-6. PMCID: PMC2696339.

Rossenkhan R, Ndung’u T, Sebunya T, Hagan J, Shapiro R, Novitsky V, Moyo SM, Thior I, Lockman S, Mitchell R, Kim S, Musonda R, van Widenfelt E, Makhema J, Essex M. Temporal reduction of HIV type 1 viral load in breast milk by single-dose nevirapine during prevention of MTCT. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2009;25:1261-4. PMCID: PMC2828251.

Novitsky V, Wang R, Margolin L, Baca J, Kebaabetswe L, Rossenkhan R, Bonney C, Herzig M, Nkwe D, Moyo S, Musonda R, Woldegabriel E, van Widenfelt E, Makhema J, Lagakos S, Essex M. Timing constraints of in vivo Gag mutations during primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. PLoS One. 2009;4:e7727. PMCID: PMC2768328.

Rowley CF, Boutwell CL, Lee EJ, MacLeod IJ, Ribaudo HJ, Lockman S, Essex M. Ultrasensitive detection of minor drug-resistant variants for HIV after nevirapine exposure using allele-specific PCR: clinical significance. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010;26:293-300. PMCID: PMC2864062.

Novitsky V, DeGruttola V, Wang R, Bussmann H, Wester CW, Wester C, Lockman S, Shapiro R, Moyo S, Makhema J, Gaseitswe S, Widenfelt E, Musonda R, Gilbert P, Ogwu A, Asmelash A, Baum M, Thior I, Marlink R, Essex M. HIV-1 subtype C infected individuals maintaining high viral load as potential targets for the “test-and-treat” approach to reduce HIV transmission. PloS One. 2010;5:e10148. PMCID: PMC2853582.

Shapiro RL, Hughes MD, Ogwu A, Kitch D, Lockman S, Moffat C, Makhema J, Moyo S, Thior I, McIntosh K, van Widenfelt E, Leidner J, Powis K, Asmelash A, Tumbare E, Zwerski S, Sharma U, Handelsman E, Mburu K, Jayeoba O, Moko E, Souda S, Lubega E, Akhtar M, Wester C, Tuomola R, Snowden W, Martinez-Tristani M, Mazhani L, Essex M. Antiretroviral regimens in pregnancy and breast-feeding in Botswana. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2282-94. PMCID: PMC2999916.

MacLeod IJ, Rowley CF, Essex M, Lockman S. Minor resistant variants in nevirapine-exposed infants may predict virologic failure on nevirapine-containing ART. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:162–7. PMCID: PMC2909836.

Novitsky V, Wang R, Margolin L, Baca J, Rossenkhan R, Moyo S, van Widenfelt E, Essex M. Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection. PLoS One. 2011;6:e16714.