Selected recent original investigations (since 2005)

Long-term trends in health inequities

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Beckfield S. History, haldanes, & health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level among the US-born white and black non-Hispanic populations, 1959-1962 to 2005-2008. Int J Epidemiol 2012 (Dec 4: epub ahead of print)

Krieger N, Chen JT, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD. Shrinking, widening, reversing, and stagnating trends in US socioeconomic inequities in cancer mortality: 1960-2006. Cancer Causes Control 2012; 23:297-319.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD. Not just smoking and high-tech medicine: socioeconomic inequities in US mortality rates, overall and by race/ethnicity, 1960-2006. Int J Health Services 2012; 42:293-322.

Krieger N, Rehkopf DH, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Marcelli E, Kennedy M. The fall and rise of inequities in US premature mortality: 1960-2002. PLoS Med 2008; 5(2):e46. doi:10.1371/journal/pmed.0050046

Racial discrimination & health

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Chen JT, Carney DR, Smith KW, Bennett GG, Williams DR, Freeman E, Russell B, Thornhill G, Mikolowsky K, Rifkin R, Samuel L. Exposing racial discrimination: implicit & explicit measures—the My Body, My Story study of 1005 US-born black & white community health center members. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(11):e27636.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027636

Krieger N, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Koenen K. Racial discrimination, psychological distress, and self-rated health among US-born and foreign-born black Americans. Am J Public Health 2011; 101:1704-1713.

Krieger N, Carney D, Lancaster K, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Banaji J. Combining implicit and explicit measures of racial discrimination in health research. Am J Public Health 2010; 100:1485-1492.

Krieger N, Kaddour A, Koenen K, Kosheleva A, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Barbeau EM. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the “inverse hazard law.” J Epidemiol Community Health 201`; 65:260-272.

Krieger N, Smith K, Naishadham D, Hartman C, Barbeau EM. Experiences of discrimination: validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Soc Sci Med 2005; 61:1576-1596.

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Hartman C, Bates LM, Stoddard AM, Quinn MM, Sorensen G, Barbeau EM. Social hazards on the job: workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination — a study of black, Latino, and white low-income women and men workers (US). Int J Health Services 2006; 36:51-85.

Breast cancer epidemiology: health inequities in societal & historical context

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD. Temporal trends in the black/white breast cancer case ratio for estrogen receptor status: disparities are historically contingent, not innate Cancer Causes Control 2011; 22:511-514.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD. Decline in US breast cancer rates after the Women’s Health Initiative: socioeconomic and racial/ethnic differentials. Am J Public Health 2010; 200:1485-1492.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Yin R, Coull BA. Race/ethnicity and changing US socioeconomic gradients in breast cancer incidence: California and Massachusetts, 1978-2002. Cancer Causes Control 2006; 17:217-226.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Selby JV. Lifetime socioeconomic position and twins’ health: an analysis of 308 pairs of United States women twins. PLoS Med 2005; 2(7): e162. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020162

Selected recent essays and review articles (since 2000)

Krieger N. Who and what is a “population”? Historical debates, current controversies, and implications for understanding “population health” and rectifying health inequities. Milbank Q 2012; 90:634-681.

Krieger N. History, biology, and health inequities: emergent embodied phenotypes & the illustrative case of the breast cancer estrogen receptor. Am J Public Health 2013; 103:22-27.

Krieger N. Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: from societal injustice to embodied inequality – an ecosocial approach. Am J Public Health 2012; 102:936-945.

Krieger N, Alegria M, Almeida-Filho N, Barbosa da Silva J Jr, Barreto ML, Beckfeld J, Berkman L, Birn A-E, Duncan BB, Franco S, Garcia DA, Gruskin S, James SA, Laurell AC, Schmidt MI, Walters KL. Who, and what, causes health inequities? — reflections on emerging debates from an exploratory Latin American/North American workshop. J Epidemiol Community Health 2010; 64:747-749. doi: 10.1136/jech.2009.1060906

Krieger N. Social inequalities in health. In: Olsen J, Saracci R, Trichopolous D (eds). Teaching Epidemiology: A Guide for Teachers in Epidemiology, Public Health, and Clinical Medicine. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010; 215-239.

Beckfield J, Krieger N. Epi + demos + cracy: linking political systems and priorities to the magnitude of health inequties. Epidemiol Rev 2009; 31:152-177.

Krieger N. Ladders, pyramids, and champagne: the iconography of health inequities. J Epidemiol Community Health 2008; 62:1098-1104.

Krieger N. Proximal, distal, and the politics of causation: what’s level got to do with it? Am J Public Health 2008; 98:221-230.

Krieger N. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:668-677.

Krieger N. A glossary for social epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55:693-700.

Krieger N. Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005;59:350-355.

Krieger N. Epidemiology and social sciences: towards a critical reengagement in the 21st century. Epidemiologic Reviews 2000; 11:155-163.

Krieger N, Davey Smith G. Bodies count & body counts: social epidemiology & embodying inequality. Epidemiol Review 2004; 26:92-103.

Krieger N. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. Epidemiology 2007; 18:658-663.

Krieger N. Ways of asking and ways of living: reflections on the 50th anniversary of  Morris’ ever-useful Uses of Epidemiology. Int J Epidemiol 2007; 36:1173-1180.

Krieger N. Researching critical questions on social justice and public health: an ecosocial perspective. In: Levy BS, Sidel VW (eds). Social Injustice and Public Health. New York: Oxford University Press 2006; 460-479.

Krieger N. Stormy weather: “race,” gene expression, and the science of health disparities. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:2155-2160.

Krieger N. Does racism harm health? did child abuse exist before 1962?-on explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:194-199.

Krieger N. Genders, sexes, and health: what are the connections–and why does it matter? Int J Epidemiol 2003; 32:652-657.

Krieger N. Hormone therapy and the rise and perhaps fall of US breast cancer incidence rates: critical reflections. Int J Epidemiol 2008; 37:627-637.

Krieger N, Löwy I, and the “Women, Hormones, and Cancer” group (Aronowitz R, Bigby J, Dickersin K, Garner E, Gaudillière J-P, Hinestrosa C, Hubbard R, Johnson PA,  Missmer SA, Norsigian J, Pearson C, Rosenberg CE, Rosenberg L, Rosenkrantz BG, Seaman B, Sonnenschein C, Soto AM, Thorton J, Weisz G). Hormone replacement therapy, cancer, controversies & women’s health: historical, epidemiological, biological, clinical and advocacy perspectives. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59:740-748.

Krieger N. Defining and investigating social disparities in cancer: critical issues. Cancer Causes Control 2005; 16:5-14.

Krieger N. Discrimination and health. In: Berkman L, Kawachi I (eds). Social Epidemiology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000; 36-75.


Krieger N. Epidemiology and The People’s Health: Theory and Context. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.

Krieger N, ed. Embodying Inequality: Epidemiologic Perspectives. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publications, Inc., 2004.

Krieger N and Margo G, eds. AIDS: The Politics of Survival. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publications, Inc., 1994.

Fee E, and Krieger N, eds. Women’s Health, Politics, and Power: Essays on Sex/Gender, Medicine, and Public Health. Amityville, NY: Baywood Publications, Inc., 1994.

Publications from the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (these studies may be obtained from our website, listed below)

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Geocoding and monitoring US socioeconomic inequalities in health: an introduction to using area-based socioeconomic measures — The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project monograph. Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health. Available at:

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2005; 95:312-323.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Race/ethnicity, gender, and monitoring socioeconomic gradients in health: a comparison of area-based socioeconomic measures–The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:1655-1671.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader M-J, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Choosing area-based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birthweight and childhood lead poisoning-The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57:186-199.

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Soobader M-J, Subramanian SV. Monitoring socioeconomic inequalities in sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and violence: geocoding and choice of area-based socioeconomic measures–The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). Public Health Reports 2003; 118;240-260.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader M-J, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Geocoding and monitoring US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter?-the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156:471-482.

Krieger N, Waterman P, Chen JT, Soobader M-J, Subramanian SV, Carson R. ZIP Code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between ZIP Codes and US census-defined areas -the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:1100-1102.

Krieger N, Waterman P, Lemieux K, Zierler S, Hogan JW. On the wrong side of the tracts? Evaluating the accuracy of geocoding in public health research. Am J Public Health 2001; 91:1114-1116.

Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Neighborhood disparities in context: multilevel analysis of census tract variations in black excess mortality and poverty. Am J Public Health 2005 95: 260-265.

Krieger N. A century of census tracts: health and the body politic (1906-2006). J Urban Health 2006; 83:355-361.

Subramanian S V, Chen JT, Rehkopf DR, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Comparing individual and area-based socioeconomic measures for the surveillance of health disparities: a multilevel analysis of Massachusetts births, 1988-92. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 164:823-834.

Rehkopf DH, Haughton L, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Krieger N. Monitoring socioeconomic disparities in death: comparing individual-level education and area-based socioeconomic measures. Am J Public Health 2006; 96:2135-2138.

Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Coull BA, Cohen B, Ostrem M, Krieger N. Mapping and measuring social disparities in premature mortality: the impact of census tract poverty within and across Boston neighborhoods, 1999-2001. J Urban Health 2006; 83:1063-1085; doi: 10.1007/s11524-006-9089-7.

Additional articles of note (prior to 2005):

Epidemiologic theories of disease distribution and critical analyses of public health

Krieger N. Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider? Soc Sci Med, 1994, 39:887-903.

Krieger N. Questioning epidemiology: objectivity, advocacy, and socially responsible science. Am J Public Health, 1999; 89:1151-1153.

Krieger N. Embodying inequality: a review of concepts, measures and methods for studying health consequences of discrimination. Int J Health Services, 1999; 29:295-352.

Krieger N, Birn AE. A vision of social justice as the foundation of public health: commemorating 150 years of the Spirit of 1848. Am J Public Health 1998; 88:1603-1606.

Krieger N, Williams D, and Moss N. Measuring social class in US public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review Public Health, 1997, 18: 341:378.

Krieger N, Fee E. Measuring social inequalities in health in the United States: an historical review, 190-1950. Int J Health Services, 1996, 26:391-418.

Epidemiologic investigations of social inequalities in health

Krieger N and Sidney S. Racial discrimination and blood pressure: the CARDIA study of young black and white adults. Am J Public Health, 1996, 86: 1370-1378.

Krieger N, Sidney S, and Coakley E. Racial discrimination and skin color in CARDIA: implications for public health research. Am J Public Health, 1998;88:1308-1313.

Krieger N, Sidney S. Prevalence and health implications of anti-gay discrimination: a study of black and white women and men in the CARDIA cohort. Int J Health Services, 1997, 27:157-176.

Krieger N, Chen JT, and Selby JV. Comparing individual-based and household-based measures of social class to assess class inequalities in women’s health: a methodologic study of 684 US women. J Epidemiol Community Health, 1999, 53:612-623.

Krieger N, Okamoto A, and Selby JV. Adult female twins’ recall of childhood social class and father’s education: A validation study for public health research. Am J Epidemiol, 1998, 147:704-708.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Ebel G. Can we monitor socioeconomic inequalities in health? A survey of U.S. Health Departments¹ data collection and reporting practices. Public Health Reports 1997; 112:481-491.

Krieger N, Wolff MS, Hiatt RA, Rivera M, Vogelman J, and Orentreich N. Breast cancer and serum organochlorines: A prospective study among white, black, and Asian women. J Natl Cancer Inst, 1994, 86:589-599.

Krieger N. Overcoming the absence of socioeconomic data in medical records: validation and application of a census-based methodology. Am J Public Health 1992; 82:703-710.