Particulates Core Highlights – Public Policy
Harvard-NIEHS Center research and national air pollution policy: The Harvard-NIEHS Center research has been central in recent air pollution policy. Three key Center supported epidemiologic studies in the early 1990′s fundamentally changed the perspective regarding health effects of particulate air pollution (Schwartz and Dockery 1992)(Dockery, Pope et al. 1993)(Pope, Thun et al. 1995). These three studies were critical for the establishment of the EPA’s fine particle (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (Kaiser 1997) and establishing national research priorities (National Research Council 1998; National Research Council 1999; National Research Council 2001). In a follow-up of participants in the Six Cities study, improvements in particulate air quality in these cities in the decade following the original analyses, have been shown to be associated with reduced mortality (Laden, Schwartz et al. 2005).
Center investigators continue a leadership role in research used by policy makers: In the recent review of the EPA National Air Quality Standard for particulate air pollution, Center supported particle research continued to be highlighted. The Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards Staff paper (US EPA 2005) cited more than 30 studies by Center members in describing the health effects of particulate air pollution. The current and recent members of the EPA Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Particulate Matter Review Panel include Center members,Drs. Frank Speizer, Helen Suh, and Petros Koutrakis.
Cited Center Publications:
Arredouani, M., Z. Yang, et al. (2004). “The scavenger receptor MARCO is required for lung defense against pneumococcal pneumonia and inhaled particles.” J Exp Med 200(2): 267-72.
Arredouani, M. S., A. Palecanda, et al. (2005). “MARCO is the major binding receptor for unopsonized particles and bacteria on human alveolar macrophages.” J Immunol 175(9): 6058-64.
Arredouani, M. S., Z. Yang, et al. (2006). ”The macrophage scavenger receptor SR-AI/II and lung defense against pneumococci and particles.” Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 35(4): 474-8.
Bartoli CRG, Akiyama I Okabe K, Coull B, Godleski JJ Repeated Microsphere Delivery for Serial Measurement of Regional Blood Perfusion in the Chronically Instrumented, Conscious Canine. Journal of Surgical Research. 2008: 145: 135-41
Chahine, T., A. Baccarelli, et al. (2007). “Particulate air pollution, oxidative stress genes, and heart rate variability in an elderly cohort.” Environ Health Perspect 115(11):
Clarke, R. W., P. J. Catalano, et al. (1999). “Urban air particulate inhalation alters pulmonary function and induces pulmonary inflammation in a rodent model of chronic
bronchitis.” Inhal Toxicol 11(8): 637-56.
Dahl, M., A. K. Bauer, et al. (2007). ”Protection against inhaled oxidants through scavenging of oxidized lipids by macrophage receptors MARCO and SR-AI/II.” J Clin Invest 117(3):757-64.
Dockery, D. W., H. Luttmann-Gibson, et al. (2005). “Association of air pollution with increased incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias recorded by implanted cardioverter
defibrillators.” Environ Health Perspect 113(6): 670-4.
Dockery, D. W., C. A. Pope, 3rd, et al. (1993). “An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities.” N Engl J Med 329(24): 1753-9.
Dubowsky, S. D., H. Suh, et al. (2006). ”Diabetes, obesity, and hypertension may enhance associations between air pollution and markers of systemic inflammation.” Environ Health Perspect 114(7): 992-8.
Ghelfi, E., C. R. Rhoden, et al. (2008). “Cardiac oxidative stress and electrophysiological changes in rats exposed to concentrated air particles are mediated by TRP-dependent pulmonary reflexes.” Toxicol Sci. in press
Godleski, J. J. (2006). ”Responses of the heart to ambient particle inhalation.” Clin
Occup Environ Med 5(4):849-64.
Godleski, J. J., R. L. Verrier, et al. (2000). “Mechanisms of morbidity and mortality from exposure to ambient air particles.” Res Rep Health Eff Inst(91): 5-88; discussion
Gold, D. R., A. Litonjua, et al. (2000). “Ambient pollution and heart rate variability.” Circulation 101(11): 1267-73.
Gurgueira, S. A., J. Lawrence, et al. (2002). “Rapid increases in the steady-state concentration of reactive oxygen species in the lungs and heart after particulate air pollution inhalation.” Environ Health Perspect 110(8): 749-55.
Imrich, A., Y. Ning, et al. (2007). ”Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: oxidant mechanisms.” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 218(3): 256-64.
Jozefowski, S. and L. Kobzik (2004). ”Scavenger receptor A mediates H2O2 production and suppression of IL-12 release in murine macrophages.” J Leukoc Biol 76(5): 1066-74.
Laden, F., J. Schwartz, et al. (2005). ”Reduction in fine particulate air pollution and mortality: an extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study.” Am J Resp Crit Care Med
O’Neill, M. S., A. Veves, et al. (2007). ”Air pollution and inflammation in type 2 diabetes: a mechanism for susceptibility.” Occup Environ Med 64(6): 373-9.
O’Neill, M. S., A. Veves, et al. (2005). ”Diabetes enhances vulnerability to particulate air pollution-associated impairment in vascular reactivity and endothelial function.” Circulation 111(22): 2913-20.
Park, S. K., M. S. O’Neill, et al. (2005). “Effects of air pollution on heart rate variability: the VA normative aging study.” Environ Health Perspect 113(3): 304-9.
Park, S. K., M. S. O’Neill, et al. (2006). “HFE genotype, particulate air pollution, and heart rate variability: a gene-environment interaction.” Circulation 114(25): 2798-805.
Peters, A., D. W. Dockery, et al. (2001). “Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction.” Circulation 103(23): 2810-5.
Peters, A., E. Liu, et al. (2000). ”Air pollution and incidence of cardiac arrhythmia.” Epidemiology 11(1): 11-7.
Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. T. Burnett, et al. (2004). “Cardiovascular mortality and long-term
exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general
pathophysiological pathways of disease.” Circulation 109(1): 71-7.
Pope, C. A., 3rd, M. J. Thun, et al. (1995). “Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of U.S. adults.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151(3 Pt 1): 669-74.
Pope, C. A., 3rd, R. L. Verrier, et al. (1999). “Heart rate variability associated with
particulate air pollution.” Am Heart J 138(5 Pt 1): 890-9.
Rhoden, C. R., E. Ghelfi, et al. (2008). “Pulmonary inflammation by ambient air particles is mediated by superoxide anion.” Inhal Toxicol 20(1): 11-5.
Rhoden, C. R., J. Lawrence, et al. (2004). “N-acetylcysteine prevents lung inflammation after short-term inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient particles.” Toxicol Sci 79(2): 296-303.
Rhoden, C. R., G. A. Wellenius, et al. (2005). “PM-induced cardiac oxidative stress and dysfunction are mediated by autonomic stimulation.” Biochim Biophys Acta 1725(3): 305-13.
Rich, D. Q., M. H. Kim, et al. (2006). “Association of ventricular arrhythmias detected by implantable cardioverter defibrillator and ambient air pollutants in the St Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.” Occup Environ Med 63(9): 591-6.
Rich, D. Q., M. A. Mittleman, et al. (2006). “Increased risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation episodes associated with acute increases in ambient air pollution.” Environ Health Perspect 114(1): 120-3.
Rich, D. Q., J. Schwartz, et al. (2005). “Association of short-term ambient air pollution
concentrations and ventricular arrhythmias.” Am J Epidemiol 161(12): 1123-32.
Saldiva, P. H., R. W. Clarke, et al. (2002). “Lung inflammation induced by concentrated ambient air particles is related to particle composition.” Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165(12): 1610-7.
Sarnat, S. E., H. H. Suh, et al. (2006). ”Ambient particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in a panel of older adults in Steubenville, Ohio.” Occup Environ Med 63(10):
Schwartz, J. (1999). “Air pollution and hospital admissions for heart disease in eight U.S. counties.” Epidemiology 10(1): 17-22.
Schwartz, J. and D. W. Dockery (1992). “Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations.” Am Rev Respir Dis 145(3): 600-4.
Schwartz, J., A. Litonjua, et al. (2005). ”Traffic related pollution and heart rate variability in a panel of elderly subjects.” Thorax 60(6): 455-61.
Sigaud, S., C. A. Goldsmith, et al. (2007). “Air pollution particles diminish bacterial clearance in the primed lungs of mice.” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 223(1): 1-9.
Sioutas, C., P. Koutrakis, et al. (1995). ”A technique to expose animals to concentrated fine ambient aerosols.” Environ Health Perspect 103(2): 172-7.
Tonne, C., S. Melly, et al. (2007). ”A case-control analysis of exposure to traffic and acute myocardial infarction.” Environ Health Perspect 115(1): 53-7.
Wellenius, G. A., J. R. Batalha, et al. (2004). “Cardiac effects of carbon monoxide and ambient particles in a rat model of myocardial infarction.” Toxicol Sci 80(2):
Wellenius, G. A., B. A. Coull, et al. (2003). “Inhalation of concentrated ambient air particles exacerbates myocardial ischemia in conscious dogs.” Environ Health
Perspect 111(4): 402-8.
Wellenius, G. A., P. H. Saldiva, et al. (2002). “Electrocardiographic changes during exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) particles in a rat model of myocardial infarction.” Toxicol Sci 66(2): 327-35.
Wheeler, A., A. Zanobetti, et al. (2006). “The relationship between ambient air pollution and heart rate variability differs for individuals with heart and pulmonary disease.” Environ Health Perspect 114(4):560-6.
Zanobetti, A., J. Schwartz, et al. (2002). ”Blood pressure associated with PM2.5 in
a cardiac rehabilitation study. ISEE International Conference.” Epidemiology 13(4 Supplement): 497.