1. Ottersen T, Mæstad O, Norheim OF. Lifetime QALY prioritarianism in priority setting: quantification of the inherent trade-off. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2014 Jan 14;12(1):2. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-12-2. PMID: 24418267
  2. Mori AT, Kaale EA, Ngalesoni F, Norheim OF, Robberstad B. The role of evidence in the decision-making process of selecting essential medicines in developing countries: the case of Tanzania. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 8;9(1):e84824. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084824. PMID: 24416293
  3. Baltussen R, Mikkelsen E, Tromp N, Hurtig A, Byskov J, Olsen O, Bærøe K, Hontelez JA, Singh J, Norheim OF. Balancing efficiency, equity and feasibility of HIV treatment in South Africa – development of programmatic guidance. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2013 Oct 9;11(1):26. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-11-26. PMID: 24107435
  4. Robberstad B, Askildsen JE, Norheim OF. [Does budget consequences control Norwegian reimbursement priorities?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 Sep 17;133(17):1841-3. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.13.0215. Norwegian. PMID: 24042299
  5. Tranvåg EJ, Ali M, Norheim OF. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups. Int J Equity Health. 2013 Jul 11;12(1):52.
  6. Norheim OF. Atkinson’s index applied to health: can measures of economic inequality help us understand trade-offs in health care priority setting? In: Eyal N, Hurst S, Norheim OF, Wikler D, (eds). Inequalities in health: concepts, measures, and ethics. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
  7. Eyal N, Hurst S, Norheim OF, Wikler D. Introduction. In: Eyal N, Hurst S, Norheim OF, Wikler D, (eds). Inequalities in health: concepts, measures, and ethics. New York: Oxford University Press; 2013.
  8. Strømme EM, Baerøe K, Norheim OF. Disease Control Priorities for Neglected Tropical Diseases: Lessons from Priority Ranking Based on the Quality of Evidence, Cost Effectiveness, Severity of Disease, Catastrophic Health Expenditures, and Loss of Productivity. Dev World Bioeth. 2013 May 31. doi: 10.1111/dewb.12016. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Miljeteig I, Skrede S, Langørgen J, Haaverstad R, Jøsendal O, Sjursen H, Norheim OF. Should patients who use illicit drugs be offered a second heart-valve replacement? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2013 May 7;133(9):977-80. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.12.0779. English, Norwegian.
  10. Ruhago GM, Ngalesoni FN, Norheim OF. Addressing inequity to achieve the maternal and child health millennium development goals: looking beyond averages. BMC Public Health. 2012 Dec 27;12(1):1119.
  11. Norheim OF. Priority setting: the importance of incorporating opportunity costs. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2012 Nov 26;1(1):45.
  12. Carlsen B, Hole AR, Kolstad JR, Norheim OF. When you can’t have the cake and eat it too: a study of medical doctors’ priorities in complex choice situations. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Dec;75(11):1964-73.
  13. Mæstad O, Norheim OF. A universal preference for equality in health? Reasons to reconsider properties of applied social welfare functions. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Nov;75(10):1836-43.
  14. Shayo EH, Norheim OF, Mboera LE, Byskov J, Maluka S, Kamuzora P, Blystad A. Challenges to fair decision-making processes in the context of health care services: a qualitative assessment from Tanzania. Int J Equity Health. 2012 Jun 7;11:30.
  15. Johri M, Norheim OF. Can cost-effectiveness analysis integrate concerns for equity? Systematic review. Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2012 Apr;28(2):125-32.
  16. Onarheim KH, Tessema S, Johansson KA, Eide KT, Norheim OF, Miljeteig I. Prioritizing child health interventions in Ethiopia: modeling impact on child mortality, life expectancy and inequality in age at death. PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e41521.
  17. Wisløff T, Selmer RM, Halvorsen S, Fretheim A, Norheim OF, Kristiansen IS. Choice of generic antihypertensive drugs for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease – A cost-effectiveness analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2012 Apr 4;12:26.
  18. Fretheim A, Odgaard-Jensen J, Brørs O, Madsen S, Njølstad I, Norheim OF, Svilaas A, Kristiansen IS, Thürmer H, Flottorp S. Comparative effectiveness of antihypertensive medication for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and multiple treatments meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2012 Apr 5;10(1):33.
  19. Norheim OF, Gjelsvik B, Klemsdal TO, Madsen S, Narvesen S, Negård A, et al. Norway’s new principles for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: age differentiated risk thresholds. BMJ. 2011;342:d3626.
  20. Baerøe K, Norheim OF. Mapping out structural features in clinical care calling for ethical sensitivity: a theoretical approach to promote ethical competence in healthcare personnel and clinical ethical support services (CESS). Bioethics. 2011 Sep;25(7):394-402.
  21. Eide A, Haffeld J, Norheim OF. Health as a human right. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Oct 18;131(20):2029-31.
  22. Bærøe K, Ottersen T, Eide K, Engjom H, Johansson KA, Miljeteig I, Onarheim KH, Norheim OF. Priorities in global health. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2011 Sep 6;131(17):1667-9.
  23. Johansson KA, Norheim OF. Problems With Prioritization: Exploring Ethical Solutions to Inequalities in HIV Care. The American Journal of Bioethics, 2011:12, 32-40.
  24. Ruhago GM, Mujinja PG, Norheim OF. Equity implications of coverage and use of insecticide treated nets distributed for free or with co-payment in two districts in Tanzania: A cross-sectional comparative household survey. Int J Equity Health. 2011;10:29.
  25. Johansson KA, Miljeteig I, Kigwangalla H, Norheim OF. HIV priorities and health distributions in a rural region in Tanzania: a qualitative study. J Med Ethics. 2011 Apr;37(4):221-6.
  26. Baltussen R, Norheim OF, Johri M. Fairness in service choice: an important yet underdeveloped path to universal coverage (Editorial). Trop Med Int Health. 2011: Apr 1.
  27. Robberstad B, Norheim OF. Incorporating concerns for equal lifetime health in evaluations of public health programs. Soc Sci Med. 2011 May;72(10):1711-6.
  28. Cappelen AW, Norheim OF, Tungodden B. Disability compensation and responsibility. Politics, Philosophy & Economics 2010; 9(4): 411-27.
  29. Miljeteig I, Johansson KA, Sayeed SA, Norheim OF. End-of-life decisions as bedside rationing. An ethical analysis of life support restrictions in an Indian neonatal unit. J Med Ethics. 2010 Aug;36(8):473-8.
  30. Norheim O.F. Gini Impact Analysis: Measuring Pure Health Inequity before and after Interventions. Public Health Ethics, 2010 3 (3): 282-292.
  31. Norheim, O.F., Priority to the young or to those with least lifetime health? Am J Bioeth, 2010. 10(4): p. 60-1.
  32. Johansson, KA, Robberstad B, Norheim OF. Further benefits by early start of HIV treatment in low income countries: A meta-analysis and survival estimates of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Research and Therapy, 2010. 7(3).
  33. Sofaer N, Kapiriri L, Atuyambe LM, Otolok-Tanga E, Norheim OF. Is the selection of patients for anti-retroviral treatment in Uganda fair? A qualitative study. Health Policy, 2009. 91(1): p. 33-42.
  34. Norheim, O.F. and Y. Asada, The ideal of equal health revisited: definitions and measures of inequity in health should be better integrated with theories of distributive justice. Int J Equity Health, 2009. 8: p. 40.
  35. Norheim OF. Implementing the Marmot Commission’s Recommendations: Social Justice Requires a Solution to the Equity–Efficiency Trade-Off. Public Health Ethics. Epub ahead of print 2009: doi: 10.1093/phe/php006
  36. Norheim OF. A note on Brock: prioritarianism, egalitarianism and the distribution of life years. J Med Ethics. 2009 Sep;35(9):565-9.
  37. Miljeteig I, Sayeed SA, Jesani A, Johansson KA, Norheim OF. Impact of ethics and economics on end-of-life decisions in an Indian neonatal unit. Pediatrics.2009 Aug;124(2):e322-8.
  38. Maestad O, Norheim OF. Eliciting people’s preferences for the distribution of health: A procedure for a more precise estimation of distributional weights. J Health Econ. 2009 May;28(3):570-7.
  39. Johansson KA, Miljeteig I, Norheim OF. High-cost medicine–do we lack open and legitimate procedures for prioritising? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2009 Jan 1;129(1):17-20.
  40. Kapiriri L, Norheim OF, Martin DK. Fairness and accountability for reasonableness. Do the views of priority setting decision makers differ across health systems and levels of decision making? Soc Sci Med. 2009.  Feb;68(4):766-73.
  41. Norheim OF. Clinical priority setting.  BMJ. 2008 Oct 9;337:a1846. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a1846
  42. Carlsen B, Norheim OF. “What lies beneath it all?”–an interview study of GPs’ attitudes to the use of guidelines. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008 Oct 22;8:218.
  43. Miljeteig I, Johansson KA, Norheim OF. [Ethical choices in medically futile treatment] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Oct 9;128(19):2185-9. Norwegian.
  44. Fattah S, Norheim OF. [Seguro Popular--a health reform the the poorest] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008 Aug 28;128(16):1860-3. Norwegian. No abstract available.
  45. Johansson KA, Jerene D, Norheim OF. National HIV treatment guidelines in Tanzania and Ethiopia: are they legitimate rationing tools? J Med Ethics. 2008 Jun;34(6):478-83.
  46. Cappelen AW, Norheim OF, Tungodden B. Genomics and equal opportunity ethics. J Med Ethics. 2008 May;34(5):361-4.
  47. Carlsen B, Aakvik A, Norheim OF. Variation in practice: a questionnaire survey of how congruence in attitudes between doctors and patients influences referral decisions. Med Decis Making. 2008 Mar-Apr;28(2):262-8.
  48. Makundi E, Kapiriri L, Norheim OF. Combining evidence and values in priority setting: testing the balance sheet method in a low-income country. BMC Health Serv Res. 2007 Sep 24;7(1):152.
  49. Ottersen T, Mbilinyi D, Maestad O, Norheim OF. Distribution matters: Equity considerations among health planners in Tanzania. Health Policy. 2007 Sep 6.
  50. Miljeteig I, Markestad T, Norheim OF. Physicians’ use of guidelines and attitudes to withholding and withdrawing treatment for extremely premature neonates in Norway. Acta Paediatr. 2007 Jun;96(6):825-9.
  51. Robberstad B, Hemed Y, Norheim OF. Cost-effectiveness of medical interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in a sub-Saharan African country–the case of Tanzania. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2007 Feb 22;5:3.
  52. Fattah S., Johnsen KH., Norheim OF. Life-prolonging treatment – an analysis of two cases. Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2007; 127: 878-81. [Norwegian]
  53. Kapiriri L, Martin D, Norheim OF. Priority setting at the micro-, meso- and macro-levels in Canada, Norway and Uganda. Health Policy 2007; 82: 78–94.
  54. Norheim OF. Soft paternalism and the ethics of shared electronic patient records (Editorial). BMJ. 2006 Jul 1;333(7557):2-3.
  55. Miljeteig I, Norheim OF. “My job is to keep him alive, but what about his brother and sister?” How Indian doctors experience ethical dilemmas in neonatal medicine. Developing World Bioeth. 2006 Mar;6(1):23-32.
  56. Cappelen, AW. and Norheim OF. “Responsibility, fairness and rationing in health care.” Health Policy 2006; 76: 312-19.
  57. Norheim OF.      Rights to specialized health care in Norway: a normative perspective. J Law Med Ethics. 2005 Winter;33(4):641-9.
  58. Carlsen B, Norheim OF. “Saying no is no easy matter”: a qualitative study of competing concerns in rationing decisions in general practice. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005 Nov 9;5:70.
  59. Norheim OF. The role of formal outcome evaluations in health policy making: a normative perspective. In ter-Meulen, Biller-Andorno, Lenk, Lie (eds.) Evidence-based Practice in Medicine & Health Care. A Discussion of the Ethical Issues. Berlin: Springer 2005; 139-49.
  60. Olsen O. E., Ndeki S, Norheim O.F (2005). “Human resources for emergency obstetric care in northern Tanzania: distribution of quantity or quality?” Hum Resour Health 3: 5.
  61. Cappelen, A. W. and Norheim OF. “Responsibility in health care: a liberal egalitarian approach.” J Med Ethics 2005 31(8): 476-80.
  62. Norheim OF. Barriers against openness in healthcare priority setting. Tidsskrift for Norsk Velferdsforskning 2005; 15 (2): 34-42. [In Norwegian].
  63. Olsen OE, Ndeki S, Norheim OF. Availability, distribution and use of emergency obstetric care in northern Tanzania. Health Policy Plan. 2005 May;20(3):167-75.
  64. Lyngstadaas A, Ekanger R, Hagen B, Himmelmann A, Iversen OE, Iversen T, Nordal R, Norheim OF, Onsrud M, Tretli S, Trope C. Primary treatment of ovarian cancer. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2005 Feb 3;125(3):278-81. [in Norwegian]
  65. Kapiriri L & Norheim OF. Criteria for priority-setting in health care in Uganda: exploration of stakeholders’ values. Bull World Health Organ. 2004. Mar;82(3):172-9.
  66. Olsen OE, Ndeki S, Norheim OF. Complicated deliveries, critical care and quality in emergency obstetric care in Northern Tanzania. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Oct;87(1):98-108.
  67. Carlsen, B, Norheim OF. Hvordan påvirker fastlegeordningen legens skjønnsmessige avgjørelser? Tidsskrift for velferdsforskning 2004: 7 (1):33-47
  68. Kapiriri L, Robberstad B, Norheim OF. The relationship between prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and stakeholder decision making in Uganda: Implications for health policy. Health policy 2003; 66 (2): 199-211.
  69. Kapiriri L, Arnesen TM, Norheim OF. Severity of disease or cost-effectiveness of treatment? An exploration of values held by Ugandan actors in priority setting in health. Cost-effectiveness and Resource Allocation 2004. Jan 8;2(1):1.
  70. Arnesen TM & Norheim OF. Quantifying quality of life for economic analysis – Time-out for Time trade-off. Medical Humanities 2003 Dec;29(2):81-6.
  71. Norheim OF. Norway. In Chris Ham and Glen Robert (eds.) Reasonable Rationing. London: Open University Press 2003; Ch.
  72. Kapiriri L, Norheim OF, Heggenhougen K. Using burden of disease information for health planning in developing countries: the experience from Uganda, Social Science and Medicine 2003; 56: 2433-41.
  73. Kapiriri L, Norheim OF, Heggenhougen K. Public participation in health planning and priority setting at the district level in Uganda. Health Policy & Planning. 2003; 18: 205-213.
  74. Carlsen B, Norheim OF. Introduction of the patient-list system in general practice. Changes in Norwegian physicians’ perception of their gatekeeper role. Scand J Prim Health Care. 2003 Dec;21(4):209-13.
  75. Norheim OF. How much does the society want to pay? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2003 Feb 6;123(3):303. [in Norwegian]
  76. Norheim OF. The role of evidence in health policy making: a normative perspective. Health Care Analysis 2002; 10: 309-17.
  77. Kapiriri L, Norheim OF. Whose priorities count? Comparison of community identified health problems and burden of disease assessed health priorities in a district in Uganda. Health Expectations 2002; 5: 55-62.
  78. Norheim OF. Clinical guidelines. Health care rationing and accountability for reasonableness. In “Clinical Guidelines: Law, Policy and Practice” John Tingle and Charles Foster (eds), London: Cavendish Publ. 2002; 161-80.
  79. Norheim OF, Fougner J, Søreide O, Storm-Mathisen I, Strengehagen E. Three years of experience with the Norwegian board of appeals for decision on reimbursement of expenses incurred for medical treatment abroad. [In Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Lægeforen 2002; 122: 1560 – 3.
  80. Norheim OF. & Paulsen JE. Health policy and the distribution of quality of life. [in Norwegian] Nytt norsk tidsskrift 2001; 4: 419-26.
  81. Norheim OF. & Hunskår S. Knowledge must be combined with values for decision making under uncertainty [in Norwegian] Tidsskri Nor Lægeforening 2001;121 (11): 1387-90.
  82. Norheim OF, Ekeberg Ø, Evensen SA, Halvorsen M, Kvernebo K. New guidelines for priority setting in Norway: Are they applicable for the evaluation of new health care services? Health Policy 2001; 56(1): 65-79.
  83. Norheim OF, Bringedal B. How should we prioritise health services? [in Norwegian] In Challenges for health economics in Norway. JE. Askildsen og K. Haug (eds.). Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk 2001.
  84. Norheim OF. Increasing demand for accountability. Is there a professional response? In The global challenge of health care rationing, A. Coulter and C. Ham (eds), Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000.
  85. Norheim OF. Limiting access to allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in five European countries. Is there any evidence of implicit rationing? Health Policy 2000; 52: 149-56.
  86. Norheim OF. Living donor renal transplantation: Ethical aspects. Organs & Tissues 2000; 1: 11-14
  87. Klovning A, Norheim OF. Alendronate also for women without established osteoporosis? [in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2000; 120:1347-51.
  88. Schei E, Norheim OF, Rørtveit G, Lysebo DE, Hjørleifsson S. Physician–the one-eye samaritan? [in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2000; 120: 1207-9.
  89. Norheim OF. Healthcare rationing-are additional criteria needed for assessing evidence based clinical practice guidelines? BMJ 1999;319(7222):1426-1429.
  90. Holm S, Liss PE, Norheim OF. Access to health care in the Scandinavian countries. Ethical aspects. Health Care Analysis 1999; 7: 321-30.
  91. Norheim OF, Ekeberg O, Evensen SA, Halvorsen M, Kvernebo K. [How shall we set priorities among experimental treatment methods? [in Norwegian]. Nord Med 1998;113(1):17-8, 23-4.
  92. Norheim OF. The Norwegian welfare state in transition: Rationing and plurality of values as ethical challenges for the health care system. J Med Philos 1995;20(6):639-55.
  93. Hansson LF, Norheim OF, Ruyter KW. Equality, explicitness, severity, and rigidity: the Oregon plan evaluated from a Scandinavian perspective. J Med Philos 1994;19(4):343-66.
  94. Norheim OF. Prioritizing and righteousness–what do we do when we can’t do everything? [in Norwegian]. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 1993;113:3358- 3361.
  95. Norheim OF. Guidelines for priority-setting in the Norwegian health care system. In: Szawarski Z, Evans D, editors. Solidarity, justice and health care priorities. Linkøping: Health service studies 8; 1993a. p. 65-76.
  96. Norheim OF, Ekeberg O, Evensen SA, Halvorsen M, Kristensen F. Prioritizing in hospital departments. [in Norwegian]. Tidsskrift for Den Norske Laegeforening 1993;113:3378-381.
  97. Norheim OF. High-cost therapy. Ethical principles of allocation of scarce resources. [in Norwegian] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1992;112(24):3115-8.