BELARUS. Law of the Republic of Belarus of 18 June 1993 on public health. (Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta Respubliki Belarus, No. 24, 18 June 1993, Entry 290, as summarized in International Digest of Health Legislation, Vol. 46, No. 3, 1995, pp. 297-299.)

Division I. General provisions (Secs. 1-8). Sec. 1 lays down that the legislation of the Republic of Belarus concerning the health protection of its citizens comprises the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, this Law, and other legislative texts of the Republic. Under Sec. 2, State policy in the health protection field is based on the following principles: access to medical care and medicaments; emphasis on prevention in public health; priority to children and mothers in the dispensing of medical care and the provision of medicaments; control of the professional activities of medical and pharmaceutical personnel in health services; the responsibility of entities representing the State Authorities and Administration, and of employers, with regard to the state of health of citizens; equal opportunities for development for undertakings, establishments, and health organizations, irrespective of their ownership and form of property; financial participation of legal and natural persons in the preservation of citizens' health; and the participation of social organizations and citizens in health protection. The other principal Sections of this Division are as follows: 3. The right of citizens to health protection; 4. The right of citizens to a free choice of physician and health care establishment; 6. The right to health protection of persons who are the subject of a judicial inquiry or who are held in a place of detention; 7. The right of citizens to be informed concerning their state of health; and 8. Obligations and responsibilities of citizens in the field of health protection.

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Division V. Provision of medical and health care to persons suffering from diseases constituting a danger to society (Secs. 26-31). Sec. 26 (Special measures for prevention and treatment) requires the public health entities, with a view to protecting the health of the population, to adopt special measures for the prevention and treatment of diseases constituting a danger to other persons (tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, and leprosy), as well as quarantinable diseases. The modalities governing the medical examination and treatment of persons suffering from such diseases, and the list of quarantinable diseases, are to be determined by the Ministry of Health. Secs. 27 (Medical examination and treatment of citizens suffering from a disease constituting a danger to society or a quarantinable disease), 28 (Responsibility for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases or the human immunodeficiency virus), and 29 (Legal and social protection of persons infected by the human immunodeficiency virus) read substantially as follows:

"27. Citizens wishing to undergo a medical examination in order to establish the presence or absence of a disease constituting a danger to society (tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, AIDS, or leprosy) or infection by the human immunodeficiency virus shall have the right to an anonymous medical examination.

Citizens concerning whom there are sufficient reasons to assume that they are suffering from any of the above-mentioned diseases, or that they are carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus, and who refuse to undergo a medical examination, may be compelled to undergo such an examination; citizens suffering from a sexually transmitted disease and those suffering from tuberculosis who spread mycobacteria may, if they refuse to undergo treatment, be compelled to follow a course of treatment.

The compulsory medical examination of such persons shall be performed following the decision of health care establishments, with the authorization of the Public Prosecutor; the compulsory hospitalization and treatment of such persons shall take place following a court decision, in accordance with the procedure laid down by the legislation of the Republic of Belarus.

Foreign nationals and stateless persons may, if they refuse to undergo an examination for the purposes of detecting infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) or prophylactic surveillance, be expelled from the Republic of Belarus, in accordance with the procedure laid down by the legislation of the Republic of Belarus.

Officials of diplomatic missions or foreign consular services and other persons who enjoy diplomatic privileges and immunities on the territory of the Republic of Belarus may not be subjected to a test for the detection of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), unless they give their consent. Such persons may not be requested to undergo a test for the detection of this virus without prior consultation between the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Belarus and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Belarus.

28. Any person in whom a sexually transmitted disease or infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS) has been detected shall be informed in writing, by the health entities and establishments, of the need to comply with precautions designed to prevent the spread of such diseases and of the criminal liability, incurred under the legislation in force, for knowingly exposing another person to a risk of infection or for infecting another person; persons suffering from a sexually transmitted disease shall likewise be informed of the criminal liability incurred by refusal to undergo treatment.

29. Persons who are carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus or who have AIDS may not be subject to any discrimination on such grounds.

It shall be prohibited to dismiss persons from employment, refuse them employment, refuse them admission to an educational establishment, refuse the admission of children to children's establishments, or otherwise affect the rights of such persons or in any way restrict their legitimate interests solely on the grounds that they are carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus or suffering from AIDS; it shall likewise be prohibited to prejudice the rights and legitimate interests of the families and associates of infected persons with regard to accommodation or other matters."

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Division VI. Maternal and child protection (Secs. 32-35). The Sections of this Division are as follows: 32. Protection of the interests of mothers and children; 33. Provision of medical care to mothers and neonates; 34. Organization of the provision of medical care to children and adolescents; and 35. Provision of medical care to disabled children.

Division VII. Donation and transplantation of organs and tissues (Secs. 36-39). Sec. 36 (Blood donation) lays down, inter alia, that any citizen of the Republic of Belarus may donate blood and blood components provided that he has attained the age of 18 years, has undergone a medical examination, and is not suffering from a disease incompatible with donation. Sec. 38 (Artificial insemination of embryo implantation) lays down that artificial insemination or embryo implantation may be performed on a woman provided that she has given her free consent (if the woman is married, her husband's consent is also required).

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