BOLIVIA. National Development Strategy, 1992. (National
Development Strategy: An Instrument for Coordination. . . . Population
Policy Guidelines, 1992, La Paz, Bolivia, Ministry of Planning and
Coordination, Department of Population Policy, 1992.
2. MULTISECTORAL STRATEGY ON POPULATION POLICIES
48. Within the framework of the ESB, population policies
are conceived of as a group of measures intended to influence demographic
behavior. These guidelines will serve to harmonize population trends with
trends of economic and social development, with the goal of contributing
to the satisfaction of the basic necessities of the country's inhabitants
and promoting their productive participation in society.
49. The implementation of population policies requires
a) Principles and standards are defined for the public
and private agencies that operate in this field;
b) Respect for the liberty of individuals and families
is guaranteed, within the framework of the individual rights established
by the Political Constitution of the State;
c) These policies are integrated into global efforts to
promote the principles of respect for human rights, national sovereignty,
and international solidarity.
50. Bolivia's population dynamics have undergone important
changes, considerable reductions in both the infant mortality rate and
fertility rate, and an accelerated process of urbanization. These transformations
are not the result of explicit population policies, but are attributable,
on one hand, to human behavior in the face of an adverse socioeconomic
context and, on the other, to the effect of the health plans and programs
that have been widely implemented in the country. Nevertheless, these demographic
modifications are insufficient and, because of this, it is of extreme urgency
to increase awareness of the need to develop a coherent population policy
oriented towards the integral development of the country.
51. The National Strategy calls for the implementation
of a National Population Plan that, for its execution, gives priority to
timely activities, target groups, target goals, responsible activities
and institutions, and human and financial resources.
2.2 General Objective
52. To strive for a harmonious relationship between population
dynamics and the process of social and economic development that will permit
the factors that influence population trends to be affected in a positive
way. This relationship must also contribute towards satisfying the basic
needs of various population groups, while maintaining both sustainable
development and the environment.
2.3 Specific Objectives
2.3.1. To contribute to a reduction in the rates of infant
and maternal mortality and morbidity.
53. Under this Strategy, it is important to support the
National Plan of Infant Survival and Development and Maternal Health, extending
the technical methods of the program of "Infant Survival in Bolivia"
and analyzing current information on health and mortality through following
indicators, using information and data on the target populations, priorities,
and situations of urgency, so that these activities are effective.
54. Widespread national information, communication, and
education plans will be approved (in Spanish and native languages) on health
and hygiene habits. At the same time, educational texts and pamphlets will
be produced in order to achieve the participation of the people in the
care of their own health, as a basic means of prevention.
2.3.2. To spread awareness of reproductive health matters
related to fertility in order to bring about a decrease in maternal and
55. The implementation of information, communication,
and educational programs on population issues will be the basic instrument
for the broad diffusion of information on standards relating to women's
integral health care and to the basic elements of health for family life.
This information will be issued by the Ministry of Social Security and
Public Health (MPSSP).
56. Another important task will be the dissemination of
information on the existence of the internationally recognized right of
people to decide freely the number and spacing of their children. To complement
this information, educational campaigns must be carried out on the correct
application of standards relating to reproductive health, sex education,
and family planning. These will be appropriate to the different socioeconomic,
regional, cultural, and ethnic realities of the various population groups.
2.3.3. To strive towards an appropriate use of national
space and support the strengthening of intermediate cities with the goal
of achieving their territorial, economic, and social integration.
57. To reach this objective, it is necessary to bring
about the transfer of information both now and in the future in order to
interest departmental and municipal governments in the execution of regional,
urban, and rural development activities. These will be based on an appropriate
use of space and the socioeconomic promotion of intermediate cities.
58. The implementation of this proposal must be accompanied
by the optimal and efficient management of natural, institutional, financial,
technical, and other resources that are involved in the spatial distribution
of the population.
59. Another mechanism for achieving appropriate population
distribution is the formulation of urban development and integration plans
for border populations. These plans will deal with the establishment of
sovereignty, the attraction of population, and economic development. In
this manner, the transitory nature of the energy of these populations that
depend on the economic conditions of neighboring countries will be counteracted.
60. Finally, rural development will be promoted in the
context of economic potential, so as to encourage the permanency of the
labor force by offering it options of training and technical assistance
that will increase agricultural and farming production.
* * *
68. With respect to Bolivian temporary migrant workers
in other countries, legal instruments for their social and legal protection
will be established through bilateral agreements and accords between countries.
These will guarantee suitable social security arrangements, as a minimum
guarantee for the maintenance of the labor force.
2.3.5. To control the negative effects on the environment
of urbanization and the activities of the population.
69. Mechanisms will be developed to create awareness in
and sensitize the general population to present and potential demographic
environmental problems. Cultural and regional diversity must be considered
in designing a national program on education on population and the environment.
Methods of social communication will be used for its application in formal
education (universities and other educational institutions) and informal
2.3.6. To establish the institutional mechanisms necessary
to coordinate population policies and ensure that they respond to the guidelines
of this Strategy, so as to guarantee the availability of specialized human
70. Under the direction of the Ministry of Planning and
Coordination (MPC), through the Population Policy Unit (UPP), intersectoral
coordination mechanisms will be put into practice to ensure in an efficient
manner the compatibility of the objectives of population policy that are
pursued by government sectors and programs.
71. It is important to generate a management policy for
the appropriate management of national resources and international cooperation.
This policy will ensure efficient technical and financial assistance in
support of the activities of population policies.
72. Finally, with the support of international institutions
involved in population issues, the development of professional human resources
in the different areas of population and development will be promoted.