KENYA.  Population Policy Guidelines, National Coucil for Population and Development, January 1986.  (The Weekly Review [Nairobi], 24 January 1986, p. 17.)

 

1.  Preamble:

 

Kenya's 4th Development Plan (1979-1983) states under the Population Policy (p. 6l para 2.156) that:  "In Kenya decisions on family size rest with parents.  These decisions taken together determine the rate of population growth in the nation.  While the government is concerned about the rapid rate of population growth in Kenya, it is also convinced that as these concerns come to be understood in terms of effects on family welfare and quality of life, parents will adjust their decisions in favour of smaller families".  The current Development Plan 1984-1988 states further:  "Since the rate of population growth is mainly determined by decisions taken by parents on family size, during this Plan period the government, in co-operation with non-government organizations, will intensify its programme of informing and educating actual and potential parents regarding the benefits of smaller family sizes, particularly since the fertility of less-educated women is found to be higher.  Family planning services will be made available mainly in the rural areas, by increasing the number of health facilities offering family planning services and also the number of trained personnel to provide these services".

 

* * *

 

4.  Priorities and Strategies:

 

An urgent need has been recognised to provide all relevant audiences in Kenya with information about what rapid population growth implies for the welfare of individuals, families and the opinion in which family planning can be freely discussed, freely practised without adverse social pressure and fully supported through the provision of relevant services and education.  Many agencies have been trying to motivate the public to accept family planning, albeit in an unco-ordinated manner.

 

In recognition of the need for sustained information and education in support of family planning and other population activities in the country the National Council for Population and Development has been created to act as an umbrella organization in supporting, co-ordinating and strengthening the IEC programmes and activities of the participating agencies.  To achieve the objectives the Council will adopt several strategies detailed below:

 

4.1.  Documentation and Evaluation of Population Activities and Agencies.--Currently there are several ministries, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and individuals carrying out research and programmes in population and related activities.  The activities of these agencies and programmes have not been pooled into a document from which the assumptions and policies under which they operate can be discussed.  In order to plan future activities in the area of population and national development and integrate the various agencies into programmes aimed at addressing population problems, the evaluation and documentation of existing policy and project activities is a necessity.

 

In addition to the evaluation of existing agency policies and programmes, it is necessary to have an assessment of government ministries and NGOs capacity and capabilities to take on added responsibilities through assignments from NCPD.

 

4.2.  Research.--Research helps development.  In the context of population matters results of social and demographic research would assist the functions of the NCPD.  The following are the research priorities considered necessary with a view to find out:

 

(i)    Adolescents' fertility,

 

(ii)   The relationship between the status of women, their participation in the labour force and how this affects fertility,

 

(iii)   The cost and the value of children to various groups of parents,

 

(iv)   The influence of household decision-making process on reproductive goals,

 

(v)   The impact of labour migration from rural areas on fertility and its impact on resources,

 

(vi)   The effect of specific government policies (e.g., on land adjudication) on the household fertility decisions,

 

(vii)  The influence of specific institutions (e.g., religion and education) on fertility,

 

(viii) The factors and problems related to the use and non-use of all forms of contraceptives,

 

(ix)   The extent and problems related to infertility, and sub-fertility, and

 

(x)    The extent of abortion and its consequences in health and in social-psychological areas.

 

4.3.  Population Education.--Population education, as an area of study, is relatively new in population studies.  Population education, however, has been acclaimed as an educational response to population and other related problems.  As such, this type of education can be introduced as family life education, sex education, family planning, birth control, etc. to various groups while aiming at the consequences of the rapid growth of population to the development.  Education has been found to be an important factor in matters of family formation and other population processes.  It is accepted that learning takes place from as early as infancy and continues throughout the life cycle.  Thus, there is need to explore what is learned at different stages of an individual's life.

 

Family size orientation of young people, for example, is an outcome of their learning from the family, peers, the school, the church, the mass media, in addition to other sources through which learning takes place.  There is need, therefore for research to find out "when" and "what" kinds of information the young people get from the various teaching agents, and ways in which these agents could be utilised to bring about the desired population changes.  It is thought that various population education concepts could be introduced in various subjects, such as mathematics, religion, civics, geography, home economics, etc., and teachers could be trained in how to teach the population subject at various levels.

 

4.4.  Service Delivery System.--Currently, family planning services are being delivered through government health institutions, private hospitals, Family Planning Association's Clinics, private medical practitioners and some church-related health institutions.  Given the limited number of service delivery points and the number of people qualified to provide contraceptive services, including counselling and following-up exercises, there is a likely danger of over-motivation of few family planning clients without ensuring the ease of availability of the services.

 

In view of this, it is recommended that priority be given to the whole area of provision of quality services through all possible outlets in the country.  Community based distribution of contraceptives is a new method which should be encouraged and training and supervision of the distributors be carried out by the ministry of health in collaboration with other service-providing agencies.

 

5.  Population Policy Goals:

 

In view of the problems reviewed above, the following goals to guide policy and programme planning are suggested:

 

5.1.  Demographic Goals:

 

(i)    To reduce population growth rate from the current 3.8 per cent to 3.3 per cent by 1988 (see Appendix 2),

 

(ii)   To encourage Kenyans to have a small family,

 

(iii)  To reduce fertility level that sustains the high rate of population growth and at the same time assist those couples, as well as individuals, who desire but are unable to have children,

 

(iv)  To reduce mortality further, particularly the infant and child mortality,   because such reductions would ultimately lead to lowering the fertility,

 

(v)   To reduce rural-urban and rural-to-rural migration which help to create the unplanned settlements in marginal lands and to help ease the pressure on basic need services in both the rural and urban areas,

 

(vi)   To motivate Kenya males to adopt and practice family planning.

 

5.2.  Educational Goals:

 

(i)    To improve the status of women through equal access and opportunities in higher education, training and remunerative employment,

 

(ii)   To improve general education attainment levels for both males and females and enhance the educational institutions capacity to provide relevant skills for the youth, and

 

(iii)  To provide the youth with information and education concerning population matters.

 

5.3.  Clinical Services Goals:

 

(i)    To ensure availability of contraceptive services for those women and men who are ready for and need them,

 

(ii)   To ensure adequate counselling, examination and a follow-up of the contraceptive users,

 

(iii)  To train, retrain and supervise health and other contraceptive workers in provision of contraceptive services, and

 

(iv)   To be vigilant about the type and quality of contraceptives being provided in the service delivery points.

 

6.  Current and Future Population Activities:

 

As stated earlier, several agencies have been involved in population and family planning activities for several years.  The council will strengthen such activities.  As a first step, the council has approved funds for 15 projects which are being implemented by six NGOs and two government ministries.  A summary of these projects to be undertaken by each of the agencies and future activities are as follows:

 

6.1.  Ministry of Health.--The council has approved funds for the following activities to be undertaken by this ministry:

 

(a)  Production and distribution of a newsletter aimed at motivating ministry's staff and others,

 

(b)  Production of mass media materials aimed at giving details of local family planning services,

 

(c)  Strengthening family planning clinics and providing extensive education through production of core materials, e.g., flip charts, posters and workshops, specifically for the ministry's staff, and

 

(d)  Mass media support for family planning inter-personal communication through local campaigns to publicise opening of new services delivery points and dispel misconceptions on family planning.

 

In addition, the Divisions of Health Education Unit, the Integrated Rural Health Project, the Administration Support Unit and the National Family Welfare Centre should play a central role in carrying out the following recommendation:

 

(i)   Training.--Population education should be integrated into the existing curriculum, at all levels of training of medical and paramedical personnel.

 

(ii)  Maternal Child Health and Family Planning (MCH/FP).--The ministry has plans to strengthen the programme aimed at improving the health of the mother and the child by establishing more rural health facilities and expanding the training of health personnel.  The aim should be to ensure that such services are available to those who need them.

 

(iii)   Research and Evaluation.--The ministry hopes to undertake a drop-out study of family planning acceptors of MCH/FP.  In addition, the ministry would evaluate its on-going activities, particularly those related to family planning, e.g., the impact of training of family planning field educators (FPFEs), low contraceptive adoption problem and service delivery programmes.  Another important area of research should be to strengthen the ministry's capability to collect data on births and deaths in order to give it the ability to relate provision of health and related services to mortality and fertility.

 

(iv)  Production of Educational Materials.--The Health Education Division is currently involved in production of health educational materials in addition to organising seminars.  Such materials would be reoriented to include specific population messages emphasising the relationship between health and other related components to population factors.  In the production of population related materials, the division would liaise with the relevant participating agencies in educational material production services.  The unit would also strengthen community based dissemination of the population related information.

 

(v)   Provision of Information and Family Planning Services.--The ministry would expand its ability to incorporate population related information at all the service delivery points, mobile units and the primary health care projects to cater for more adolescents and men.  The ministry would also encourage and supervise the community based distribution of contraceptives, including the training of the distributors.

 

Since there will be several service delivery points both public and private, the council recommends that a uniform charge for contraceptives be established.

 

The ministry should examine possibilities and implication of getting the required contraceptives duty-free in order to enhance easy access to both the users and the implementing agencies.

 

6.2.  Ministry of Finance and Planning.--The council has approved funds for the establishment of a documentation centre within Rural Services Co-ordination and Training Unit (RSCTU) in the ministry.  This centre will be responsible for the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of information to various participating agencies.  In collecting and disseminating the information, RSCTU should liaise with the council to ensure that the agencies receive relevant information.

 

The RSCTU through its field training programme (i.e., training district development teams), should also encourage utilisation of population data for effective planning at the district level.

 

Since the ministry is responsible for co-ordination and formulation of the national development plans including the relevant national strategies, policies and programmes this will assist other ministries/departments in the formulation of development plans that would facilitate the inclusion of population activities in their programmes.

 

The Central Bureau of Statistics, a department of the same ministry, co-ordinates all statistical work within the government.  It undertakes the production of economic surveys and reports, national sample surveys, population census (including inter-censal surveys) and demographic statistical reports.  CBS is expected to continue giving the same services.

 

6.3.  Kenya Catholic Secretariat (KCS).--The council has provided funds to enable the secretariat to promote a better understanding of the Christian marriage, the dignity of married persons, the natural methods of family planning and the meaning and protection of human life.

 

In order for this organisation to be more effective, the council thinks that this organisation should broaden its view of the population problem, to facilitate the teaching of population education including such topics as sexuality.  The Kenya Catholic Secretariat should mobilise their member churches to motivate the public in matters related to the family and society.

 

6.4.  National Christian Council of Kenya (NCCK).--The council is funding activities aimed at providing family life education to adults and youth who are in and out of school.  To make these activities more effective, the National Christian Council of Kenya should organise and expand the contents of their messages to include other population related issues such as relationship between population and development and how this relationship affects their target groups.  The NCCK should mobilise their member churches to assist in the motivation of the public in matters related to the family and society.

 

6.5.  Protestant Churches Medical Association (PCMA).--The council is funding activities of this organisation which aim at providing population education to youth, both in and out of school, to eventually reduce incidences of pregnancies among the youth.

 

The council is of the opinion that the organisation should broaden the population information through more utilisation of their clinics.  These clinics should also be utilised more in the provision of family planning services, training and population education.

 

6.6.  Salvation Army (SA).--The council has approved funds for a project to teach young people the importance of family planning.

 

The council recommends that such activities should include a stronger population education component to enable the youth to understand the relationship between population growth and development and the role of the church in ensuring that while the people's lives are not endangered by the high rate of population growth there are serious consequences to the nation as a whole.

 

6.7.  Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK).--The council is funding five projects to be undertaken by this organisation:  two staff development projects, material production and distribution, seminar for private medical practitioners and evaluation of the youth programmes.

 

The council recommends that the population education component should be broadened to include more information on the relationship between population and development and service delivery points should be utilised as one of the channels for providing such information.

 

6.8.  Maendeleo ya Wanawake Organization (MYWO).--The council is funding activities by this organisation aimed at providing family planning information to Maendeleo ya Wanawake women's groups in the five districts of Eastern Province:  Kitui, Machakos, Embu, Meru and Isiolo.

 

The council hopes that the members of this organisation will be utilised more to reach more rural families with population related messages.  This organisation should also devise methods of approaching the women problems from a family point of view rather than separate individual.  The organisation should also play a vital role in male motivation.

 

6.9.  Office of the President.--There are several government ministries, NGOs and religious bodies which could play key roles in assisting the council achieve the goals.  Some of the agencies are known to have population-related activities although details of such activities are not fully known.  In this context, through the Directorate of Personnel Management (DPM) the Kenya Institute of Administration should incorporate and co-ordinate the population education with the training activities of personnel from both the government and other participating agencies.

 

The office of the president should encourage the use of the National Youth Service as a motivation medium for population attitude change.

 

Through the provincial administration, the district development committees at the local level should assist in orienting the local leaders in population issues, and how to incorporate these into their development projects.

 

6.10.  The Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.--The traditional socialisation functions of the nuclear family [have] largely shifted to institutions such as the school, the church, the media, etc.  In the traditional society, the individual, right from the infancy to adulthood, was socialised and trained by the family and the community.  The parent's opportunity to socialise the child today is mainly durinling period is a line of growth both physically, socially and psychologically and it is at this stage that the youth needs guidance in all aspects of life.  There is no doubt that the Kenya youth should be aware of the importance and problems or implications of rapid population growth in the country.  Provided with the information on how population changes and the measures which an individual, the family and the community can take to slow the high rate of population growth, the youth will no doubt be more aware about population growth and will be inclined to do something about it.  In view of this the following points are recommended.

 

(a)  Integration of certain study units of population education in existing courses at all levels of schooling emphasising population change processes (i.e., fertility, mortality and migration), and the consequences of such changes to the individual, community and the nation; the implications of unplanned parenthood for the families and the youthful parents themselves.  The population education should also aim at reinforcing the youths to appreciate a small family and what this means for both national and individual development.

 

(b)  The teacher training curriculum in particular should incorporate a strong population education section that will enable the teachers to get acquainted with relevant population knowledge and enable them to offer required courses at the various levels of schooling.

 

(c)  In developing population education content for integration into the existing curricula, deliberate effort should be made to ensure that this is reflected in examinations along with other subjects.

 

(d)  In order to ensure the consistency of what is taught and learned in schools, parents should be motivated through parent teacher association (PTA) and board of governors to follow up their children's education and socialisation aspects of both at home and in school.

 

(e)  The ministry should ensure that all other institutions (e.g. polytechnics, institutes of science and technology, technical colleges and other training institutions, university, etc.) undertake to incorporate population education in their syllabi.

 

(f)  It is recommended that Kenya National Union of Teachers use its structures and facilities and opportunities to infuse population education among teachers.  The organisation should also run in-service courses and seminars to teachers dealing specifically on population matters.

 

6.11.  Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.--This ministry should make people aware of the population programmes and other activities as well as related problems by putting captions at strategic times to highlight the NCPD activities, produce and/or serialise programmes on population and related activities through discussions, conferences, interviews and plays/acts.  The print media and other media forms would also be useful.

 

The ministry should broadcast population related activities for both out-of-school youth and adults in both national and vernacular languages.

 

6.12.  Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development.--The ministry, through its extension workers and training programmes, should infuse population education activities in the activities of extension workers and the curriculum of training programmes in order to equip extension and other personnel with population education and relevant skills sufficient to enable them to relate population problems to rural development activities.

 

6.13.  Ministry of Culture and Social Services.--Certain departments of this ministry should help NCPD in various ways.  For instance, the family life and community development programmes should integrate and develop population programmes oriented to men and women.  The department of community development in particular could be of great assistance to NCPD in following up the Community affairs at the locational and divisional levels where Community Development Assistants (CDA) could be used as one of the agents for Community Based Distribution of Contraceptives (CBDC).  The department of adult education should be encouraged to include population and family planning topics in their literacy programmes.  The department of youth should be encouraged to include in their training information concerning population and development and should urge youth to discuss the issue of population as is related to them and the environment.

 

The cultural division, through drama and dances, should be encouraged to stage plays concerning the family, the youth, the aged, etc., and drawing the relevant material from the traditions existing in society.  These material for drama and plays should also reflect the reality as it is today.

 

6.14.  Ministry of Labour.--The ministry should orient its own staff on the relationship between labour and rapid population growth, and at the same time aim at creating awareness among workers on the same problem, as well as introducing population education and family health services.  The ministry should strengthen its programmes of training by including population and family life education for its staff and trainees.  In addition, the ministry of labour, through its occupational health services at the plant or industry level, should include information on provision of family planning services.  This ministry should get to the workers through the Central Organisation of Trade Unions which should rally its membership to introduce population and family life education into programmes targeted at workers education.

 

6.15.  Ministry of Co-operative Development.--This ministry has a co-operative education division as well as a mandate to co-ordinate and oversee the functioning of co-operatives in the rural sector.  Under its training umbrella, it should modify the co-operative curriculum to acquaint its workers with population issues and how it is related to rural development problems to which the co-operative movements are directed.  The content should be sufficiently developed to enable the co-operative office personnel to include population information into the working framework of the various co-operatives, and to help the members realise how benefits accruing into participation in co-operatives are related to the size of their families and community.

 

6.16.  Ministry of Water Development.--This ministry can demonstrate through population education programmes the relationship between the deficiency of resources such as fuel wood, water and the rapidly growing population.  The ministry should also develop programmes to demonstrate the relationship between clean water and population increase, using water projects in rural areas.

 

6.17.  Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources.--The ministry should take initiative to establish programmes to educate people about environmental deterioration and depletion of natural resources (e.g., forest resources), as a direct result of excessive population settling in marginal areas.  Population and environmental education should be developed and taught in all training programmes.

 

6.18.  Ministry of Local Government.--This ministry should concentrate its efforts to the urban, local and county council's population activities within the existing social work, health and community development by utilising the existing administrative set-up.

 

6.19.  Ministry of Lands and Settlement.--In the settlement programmes, the ministry of lands and settlement should devise ways of incorporating population oriented activities in all their training programmes.  The activities of the ministry in relation to settlement programmes should include an assessment of the effects of these settlements on population growth, migration and the impact of the newly settled population on the environment.

 

6.20.  Ministry of Works, Housing and Physical Planning.--The activities of this ministry should be confined to the urban areas.  It should aim at developing programmes that demonstrate the relationship between population and diminishing capacity for local authorities to meet housing services.

 

The local councils should take part in developing rural projects that could discourage rural-urban migration, the main population process by which urban population grows.  Through multi-purpose centres in estates, the ministry should develop population education programmes to reach the tenants.

 

6.21.  Ministry of Transport and Communications.--This ministry can develop programmes aimed at demonstrating to the public the relationship between rapid rates of population increase and the deterioration of commuter services, and rising fatalities on the roads.

 

6.22.  Ministry of Energy and Regional Development.--This ministry should oversee the incorporation of population education programmes into the plans and programmes of the regional development authorities.

 

6.23.  National Council for Science and Technology.--This council should facilitate greater participation of women in the nation's labour force, as a strategy to lower fertility levels by encouraging careers rather than familia[l] goals.

 

The council can also support certain medical programmes aimed at alleviating infertility and infant and child mortality.

 

6.24.  Office of the Attorney-General.--The NCPD will need information on births, deaths, and marriages from the office of the registrar-general.  Since laws affect population in a different manner, the office of the attorney-general should be consulted by the council from time to time in order to ensure that there is no conflict between various population policies and the law.

 

6.25.  University of Nairobi, Moi University and Kenyatta University.--The council recognises the skills and capabilities existing at both the University of Nairobi, Moi University and Kenyatta University.  The university provides training, research and consultancy services to the government and NGOs.  Under these broad areas, faculties and institutes could submit to the council suggestions on what role they can play in the implementation of the NCPD programmes.  However, the Population Studies and Research Institute at University of Nairobi is already developing research and training programmes which anticipate the council's future needs.

 

6.26.  Other Religious Denominations.--There are many faiths of various denominations in Kenya.  The council should invite them to motivate their followers in the matters related to the family and society.  The Council could also consider funding some of their projects which are related to the Council's activities.  In addition each church as an entity, should be encouraged to discuss with its congregation matters affecting the family and the community as they are related to the development.

 

6.27.  Other Organisations.--There are many other organisations in Kenya which, because of their constant contacts with their members, should be invited by the council to suggest how they could be of assistance to the nation in the important task of educating and informing their members and the public about family planning.

 

Organisations such as the Kenya Nurses Association, the Kenya Medical Association, the YMCA, YWCA, Boy Scouts, Girl Guides, Red Cross Society, the Agricultural Society of Kenya, Mother's Union, Women's Guild and statutory organisations, such as the Lake Basin Development Authority, Tana and Athi Rivers Development Authority, the National Irrigation Board and many others can be requested to help, especially with regard to motivation, education and information in matters related to population and family planning.  If they play their role, their contribution to the council's activities would be great.

 

6.28.  Research, Evaluation, Documentation and Information Dissemination.--In future programming, the council recommends that all relevant ministries and NGOs should furnish the council with an inventory of planned programmes and activities.  Such information should, as much as possible, conform to the following criteria:

 

(i)    The content and message in information, education and communication,

 

(ii)   The extent of coverage and the target groups,

 

(iii)  How the various projects are monitored and evaluated and the impact of the programmes, and

 

(iv)  Forward information on the training and production of education and other materials.

 

The council should consider the desirability of:

 

(i)    Centralised training for all field educators from participating agencies in order to ensure message consistency,

 

(ii)    Centralised training of trainers including material design and production, and

 

(iii)   In addition to the above, there is also need to design and develop messages and materials at the community levels so as to ensure relevance.

 

To facilitate the NCPD to utilise the material from the ministries and NGOs, the NCPD should establish and develop a documentation centre, that will enable the council to co-ordinate the population related and other activities of the participating agencies.

 

6.29.  Kenya African National Union (KANU).--The council welcomes the direct involvement of the ruling party, Kanu, in providing information and education on providing information and education on population matters as well as supporting the policies and programmes of the council.

 

POPULATION POLICY GUIDELINES

 

7.  Area of Focus:

 

7.1.  The Role of Leaders:

 

(a)  The time has come when all leaders in this country should provide effective leadership in all matters of population and family planning with a view to reducing the population growth rate.

 

(b)  The leaders at all levels will be involved in guiding, organising and integrating the population and development programmes at their respective levels.

 

(c)  The National Council for Population and Development will undertake the training and development of leadership in population and family planning work in order to support the technical services.

 

(d)  The government machinery for rural development will in future be based on the "District Focus".  For this reason, all the leaders at the local level would be involved in population and family planning work through their local development committees.  These matters should be integrated with other issues discussed and implemented at the district level.

 

7.2.  The Role of Education.--It is now recognised that traditional methods and values have been eroded and that the responsibility of the parents has, to a large extent, been passed on to the teacher, who is expected to teach family life education in the school.  Consequently, emphasis will be made on the following:

 

(a)  the school curriculum must be strengthened and should aim at different age groups consistent with their biological development and morality.

 

(b)  the education should be used to shape the attitudes of young people towards population and family life education and the related problems of rapid population growth and adolescent pregnancy which is an emerging serious problem associated with many deaths and suffering.

 

(c)  moral and ethical teaching of our youth will be intensified.  In this connection, there is need for teachers, parents and officials of government and non-governmental agencies to co-operate closely in family life and population education activities.

 

7.3.  The Clinical Services:

 

(a)  The traditional methods of family planning are disappearing fast and for the country to achieve significant impact in slowing down the rate of population growth, this country will have to increasingly rely on modern scientific methods coupled with appropriate knowledge in information and education.

(b)  While it is appreciated that the family planning services are expanding, there is need for constant vigilance and improvement in the quality of management, personnel and facilities.

 

(c)  There will be more emphasis on motivation and involvement of men in family planning because the emphasis has been mainly on women in the past.

 

(d)  The provision of comprehensive medical services in all areas as an integral part of development will be improved to ensure survival of children in order to allay parental fears and therefore encourage the adoption of small family sizes.

 

(e)  Certain ethical considerations should be borne in mind by all those who are expected to deal with family planning in Kenya.  In particular the following points are relevant.

 

(i)    No individual should be coerced to practice any method of family planning inconsistent with such an individual's moral, philosophical, or religious beliefs.

 

(ii)   Family planning activities should be conducted in a manner that safeguards the rights, health and welfare of all individuals who take part in family planning programmes.

 

(iii)  Induced abortions as a method of family planning is contrary to the wishes of the Government of Kenya.  No special fees or incentives of any kind should be used to women to coerce or motivate them to have abortions.

 

(iv)   All forms of surgical sterilisation must be voluntary after the clients have been given all the relevant information.  A written consent in a language a client understands and speaks must be signed by each client before a surgical contraception is done.

 

7.4.  The Role of Mass Media.--The mass media has an important role to play in information and population education and will therefore be used to the maximum in providing population information and mobilising the community.

 

7.5.  Institutional Framework:

 

(a)  The government will endeavour to fund the population activities in this country and will involve all the relevant ministries and agencies at all levels.

 

(b)  The role of NGOs will be strengthened and the necessary financial support will be provided to them with a view to compl[e]menting government in promotion of population/family planning activities.

 

APPENDIX 1

 

THE NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR POPULATION

AND DEVELOPMENT TERMS OF REFERENCE

 

1.  To determine priorities in the fields of family planning and population development activities in Kenya, in relation to the social and economic policies of the government.

 

2.  To advise the government on a national population policy including general planning and application of available financial resources.

 

3.  To advise the government on the scope and direction of all family planning and population development activities in Kenya.

 

4.  To plan, supervise and co-ordinate an inter-agency multimedia information and education programme aimed at spreading family planning knowledge and practice and the improvement of maternal and child health in Kenya.

 

5.  To promote public understanding and acceptance of the concept of family planning and a small family size.

 

6.  To promote research into social, cultural and economic aspects of population planning and development.

 

7.  To receive, evaluate and programme selected proposals and suggestions from the government, agencies and other organisations, which contribute to the realization of the council's objectives.

 

8.  To promote research into contraceptive technology and encourage innovative approaches to family planning in Kenya, including the application of natural methods.

 

9.  To liaise with donors and participate in negotiations for the funding of the projects in the programme.

 

10.  To co-ordinate and control the receipt and disbursement of all funds required to finance the council's activities.

 

11.  To provide technical and other support services to the participating agencies in the carrying out of the programme activities.

 

12.  To advise the government on the annual budgeting requirements of the council covering each year's proposed activities.

 

13.  To set up a monitoring and evaluation system for all activities in the programme.

 

14.  To liaise with both local and international organisations engaged in population development activities.

 

15.  To co-opt or otherwise hire the services of experts or consultants in various fields to work with or for the council, executive committee or secretariat in the execution of any particular task.

 

16.  With the approval of the minister, to undertake any other activities likely to assist in the achievement of the council's objectives and any other functions as requested by the government.