NIGER. Ordinance No. 92-035 of 19 August 1992 approving
the Declaration of the National Population Policy. (Journal Officiel
de la République du Niger, Vol. 59, No. 18, 15 September 1992,
II. Fundamental Principles
The formulation of a population policy demonstrates the
will of the Niger to translate by way of coherent and concrete acts agreements
made by the state at the regional, national, and international level on
questions of population and development.
* * *
In addition to respecting these various agreements, the
following are other fundamental principles of the Niger's population policy:
a) the realization that development policies implemented heretofore have
been ineffective; b) the will of female and male citizens of the Niger
to take responsibility for their own development; c) the realization by
the population, officials, and political and administrative leaders of
the complex relation between population and development and of the need
to control this process; d) the individual and collective responsibility
to prepare a future for children.
The population policy of the Niger is based on the following
1. Human resources are the most precious and certain resources
of the Niger.
2. It is impossible to have economic development without
the development of human resources.
3. Economic development is a complex process consisting
in interactions between the population and economic variables.
4. The population policy should be based upon voluntary
action, responsibility, and respect for individual and collective choice
on questions of family, marriage, fertility, and migration.
5. It is necessary to improve the living conditions of
6. The family unit should be the nucleus and the engine
of the evolution of Nigerian society.
7. Mothers and children must be protected, and their role
and status at the center of the family unit must be increased.
8. It is neceesary to take into account our social and
cultural realities, as well as our regional specificities.
9. It is necessary, first, to mobilize domestic resources
to finance the population policy.
10. The population policy should be a dynamic process,
in the sense that it should be adapted to the social-economic and cultural
evolution of society.
IV. Goals and Objectives
The population policy is an integral part of the policy
of social and economic development. Thus, its essential goal is controlling
demographic growth and migratory movements, as well as ensuring an appropriate
balance between demographic growth and economic development, in order to
improve the quality and level of life of individuals in the Niger.
A. Global objectives of the population policy:
1. To improve the health and nutrition of the population
and reduce indices of mortality and morbidity;
2. To improve the quality of life of the population;
3. To improve the financial state of the educational system;
4. To improve the conditions of the most vulnerable layers
of society, in particular, women, youth, and the disadvantaged;
5. To improve research and data collection on the issue
B. Specific objectives:
B1. Specific objectives related to global objective 1.
1 To improve the rate of health coverage by: a) better
development, management, and distribution of human resources in the health
sphere; b) development of a health care sector; and c) strengthening of
health services in rural areas.
2. To reduce mortality, particularly the mortality of
mothers and children;
3. To improve the quality of health care benefits for
mothers and children;
4. To reduce the rate of malnutrition;
5. To make family planning services available and accessible
and to promote the provision of public information on family planning;
6. To increase the rate of use of contraceptives in both
urban and rural areas;
7. To improve food production.
B2. Specific objectives related to global objective 2:
1. To improve conditions of hygiene and environmental
2. To improve the access of the population to potable
3. To strengthen cultural and sport infrastructure;
4. To promote access to decent housing in both urban and
5. To strive for a better spatial distribution of the
6. To improve the physical environment.
B3. Specific objectives related to global objective 3:
1. To improve the rate of school attendance, especially
2. To improve the rate of literacy, especially among women.
B4. Specific objectives related to global objective 4:
1. To promote the economic and legal standing of women;
2. To improve the access of youth to employment;
3. To eliminate all forms of discrimination against women;
4. To promote family-life and population education.
B5. Specific objectives related to global objective 5:
1. To promote the development of national competence in
the area of population;
2. To improve the system of data collection, particularly
with respect to civil status.
1. Global Strategies
In conformity with the principles of this declaration,
the population policy, as a product of concerted action, is based on a
consistency between strategies and objectives, on one hand, and among the
strategies themselves, on the other.
Its implementation requires graded program planning and
the classification of activities and programs according to priority objectives.
The strategy will rely upon persuasion and dialogue in
order to achieve the informed and voluntary adherence of the population
to the objectives pursued; this strategy will exclude any use of coercion
as a means of action.
The effectiveness of the implementation of the population
policy requires the real engagement on the part of officials by means of
formal support and the effective participation of the beneficiaries in
the programs that are implemented
To this end, the global strategy rests upon the following
1. Conformity of the objectives and strategies of the
population policy to the orientations of the development policy, of which
it is an integral part.
2. Development of infrastructure and services to improve
the management of resources.
3. Promotion of information, education, and communication.
4. Promotion of activities to collect, exploit, and distribute
demographic and socio-economic data.
5. Development of a synergy between public, private, and
community sectors in the financing and implementation of population programs.
6. Decentralization of the formulation and implementation
7. Strengthening entities responsible for integrating
demographic variables into population plans and programs at both the national
and local levels.
2. Specific strategies
To attain the above objectives, specific strategies will
be devised with respect to these various topics: health, nutrition, quality
of life, education and literacy, employment, disadvantaged groups, and
understanding of population issues.
1. Formulation of standard rules to integrate health services
for mothers and children into family planning services (SMI/PF), as well
as plans of action, and documents of application.
2. Extension of health services for mothers and children
and family planning services to all levels.
3. Strengthening pre- and post-natal consultations and
consultations for nursing infants and extension of vaccinations.
4. Judicious distribution of human and material resources
between urban and rural areas.
5. Strengthening infrastructure (the technical state of
referral centers), and creation of new infrastructure, especially in disadvantaged
6. Promotion of traditional medicine by its integration
into the modern health system.
7. Training of numerous qualified health personnel (doctors,
gynecologists, obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, midwifes, etc.)
8. Strengthening research on the accessibility of health
9. Improvement of health benefits.
10. Adoption of a legal framework for the promotion of
a health system, by establishing a socially acceptable policy of recovery
of costs and by revising legislation relating to family planning so as
to adapt it to the present situation.
11. Involvement in health programs of private practitioners,
the socio-medical departments of enterprises, non-governmental organizations,
and opinion makers.
12. Formulation and implementation of a program of consciousness-raising
and education, including specific issues for each target group.
13. Formulation and implementation of a national strategy
to fight AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases, and sterility, including
activities relating to prevention, screening, and care provided in various
14. Establishment and implementation of equitable criteria
for motivating personnel so as to ensure that they take greater responsibility.
15. Reduction of the high level of mobility of skilled
personnel so as to enable action plans to be implemented, followed, and
16. Provision to personnel of the necessary means to perform
1. Raising the awareness of the population as to the importance
of a nutritious and balanced diet for the growth of children.
2. Strengthening programs targeting health and strict
measures relating to the prevention of, and screening for, malnutrition.
3. Improvement of systems of rural production and promotion
of programs to increase national production.
4. Popularization of techniques to preserve and manage
5. Pursuit of a policy of micro-productive enterprises.
6. Improvement of the system of rural production.
2.3 Quality of life
1. Formulation and adoption of a policy on the habitat
within the general framework of urban policy.
2. Adoption of a policy for the construction of social
3. Adoption of a code of leases.
4. Revitalization of programs aimed at increasing awareness
of health and sanitation and at the construction of health and sanitation
5. Implementation of a policy of territorial management.
6. Control of migratory movements by creating regional
economic centers of attraction, so as to bring about a better distribution
7. Acceleration of the process of regionalization of investments
in order to enable regions better to exploit their human potential and
8. Consideration in development policies and programs
of the effects of the phenomenon of migration on both points of departure
9. Pursuit of a policy of decentralization, in the sense
of fostering greater self-management in local collectivities.
10. Development of infrastructure and promotion of activities
relating to leisure time--especially for youth--relying on the public sector,
private undertakings, and associations.
11. Intensification of actions already initiated (reforestation,
dune building, fighting brush fires, reclaiming land, fighting against
industrial and chemical pollution).
12. Rational exploitation of natural resources (forests,
pasture land, water, fauna, etc.) and the use of improved ways of heating.
13. Popularization of gas and petroleum heating and encouragement
of their use.
2.4. Education and Literacy
1. Revitalization of the activities of the committee responsible
for the reform of teaching.
2. Increasing the pace of construction of classrooms and
of teacher-training, in terms of both quantity and quality, so as to improve
working conditions and to fight against lost educational opportunities.
3. Formulation and implementation of a policy for population
literacy within the framework of a national campaign to mobilize all potential
4. Strengthening initiatives to diversify resources for
financing education and encouragement of the participation of the private
5. Integration of family-life education in education and
literacy programs (family planning, demography, maternity without risks,
6. Adoption of teaching programs within the context of
7. Raising the awareness of parents, and especially mothers,
on the problems of schooling for girls.
1. Implementation of an employment policy designed to
take into consideration all sectors of the economy and all qualifications
2. Implementation of a realistic training and employment
program adapted to the realities of the country.
3. Strengthening work safety measures.
4. Promotion of a scheme to facilitate the creation of
activities for disadvantaged groups.
2.6 Disadvantaged groups
1. Improvement of the social and legal status of women.
2. Improvement of women's access to productive resources
(access to credit, to land, etc.).
3. Creation of new centers for apprenticeship and strengthening
of existing centers.
4. Involvement of women in the management of village lands.
5. Encouragement of NGOs to increase their participation
in the financing of projects for women.
6. Pursuit of consciousness-raising campaigns to enable
women to carry out all income-generating activities.
7. Establishment of a daycare system adapted to the needs
8. Adoption of appropriate laws and consciousness-raising
programs to protect children against all forms of exploitation and abandonment.
9. Proposal to various groups of young persons of programs
for concrete action (work, the environment, culture, etc.)
10. Reorientation of activities at the center at Dakoro
and creation of a center for the education and promotion of youth with
emotional problems taken into the care of social affairs agencies.
11. Implementation of an institutional framework adequate
for the education, follow-up, and care of children and youth.
12. Encouragement of the creation of youth groups.
13. Development of programs to insert the handicapped
into society by means of professional apprenticeship, with the goal of
eliminating their dependence and begging.
14. Promoting health activities for the aged and guaranteeing
solidarity with people of retirement age.
2.7 Understanding population issues
1. Creation of a system for the collection, use, analysis,
publication, and diffusion of population data.
2. Performance of periodic inquiries on mortality, fertility,
marriage, and migration.
3. Performance of periodic general population censuses.
4. Improvement of the collection and the exploitation
of social statistics (health, education, etc.) in order to facilitate their
utilization in the formulation of national and regional development plans.
5. Improvement of understanding on the interrelations
between demographic factors and the variables of economic development.
6. Development of research on ways for integrating demographic
variables in development planning.
7. Training officials in demography and in social sciences.
8. Raising the awareness of public authorities and partners
in development as to the crucial role of research in the success of population
9. Organization for planners and directors of population
programs of seminars on techniques for integrating demographic variables.
10. Revitalization of civil status departments to improve
the registration of facts relating to civil status and the updating of
the permanent population file.
11. Production and diffusion in a regular manner of statistics
on civil status.
12. Performance of specific studies on the insertion of
women and youth in the process of development.
13. Increasing studies aiming at a better understanding
of the characteristics of, and potential for, employment in the "unstructured
14. Organization of consciousness-raising campaigns to
instill respect for laws relating to civil status.
VI. Institutional Framework
This declaration of population policy has the force of
law. The execution of this population policy will be assured by the following
1) Decision-making Agency
Every decision on this matter will be made by the Government
and the High Council of the Republic (HCR) during the transition period,
and by the national assembly after the transition.
2) Consultative Agency
The CTIP, augmented by other ministries, insitutions and
associations with an interest in population questions, is established as
a consultative agency, denominated the National Population Commission (CONAPO),
which shall assist the Government in making decisions.
3) Implementing Agencies
The population policy is an integral part of the policy
of development. Various departments of ministries are already carrying
out various population programs. The major groups of programs will be divided
among the various implementing agencies in collaboration with national
associations and institutions interested in population questions.
* * *
4) Implementation of the Population Policy
Implementation of the population policy will be carried
out through plans of action and priority investment plans relating to population
issues; these plans will set forth the precise methods and procedures for
mobilizing and utilizing resources, as well as schedules for the realization
of objectives and implementation of strategies.
Under the coordination of the Minister responsible for
population, the directors of the technical ministries will translate the
general objectives contained in this declaration into programs and activities.
To this end, a first plan of action will be formulated when this population
policy declaration is adopted.
5 Agency for Follow-Up, Evaluation, and Execution of Programs
The mission of the unit of demographic studies for development
will be: a) to advise the Government on population issues; and b) to supervise
the implementation, follow-up, and evaluation of the population policy.
To this end, it is responsible for:
1. Coordinating and energizing activities to formulate
and implement plans and programs on population issues;
2. Ensuring follow-up and evaluation of plans and programs
on population issues;
3. Promoting and carrying out studies and research on
questions of population and development;
4. Ensuring that demographic variables are taken into
consideration in the various plans and programs for socio-economic development;
5. Harmonizing and coordinating the activities of IEC
on population issues;
6. Ensuring the operation of the national secretariat
7. Ensuring the coordination of interventions of foreign
partners in population issues;
8. Ensuring the management of funds put at the disposal
of the Directorate within the framework of its activities.
VII. Expected Results
Today the Niger has at its disposal a population policy
declaration that will enable it to adopt measures that are adequate to
socio-economic and demographic conditions and to the important problems
posed by this situation.
This national population policy declaration sets objectives
and indicates strategies to attain these objectives in the context of the
Thus, all activities undertaken within the framework of
this population policy aim essentially at improving the quality and level
of life of all social groups in the population, thanks to the realization
of a better balance between human resources and the possibilities for development
of the country.
Thus, all appropriate measures set forth as part of these
strategies will bring about, in the medium and long term, a significant
decrease in the level of general, maternal, and infant mortality, and of
fertility (a reduction in the synthetic index of fertility), enabling population
growth to be controlled and balanced with economic growth.
The success of the various plans and programs that will
be formulated and implemented depends upon an efficient strategy for consciousness-raising.
Thus, appropriate informational and consciousness-raising activities aimed
at the various levels of society and relating to the challenge posed by
various problems of population and development must be undertaken, particularly
on questions of fertility, marriage, migration, and family life education.
In this regard, it will therefore be necessary to formulate a national
program of information, education, and communication (IEC) which will constitute
the driving force of the various plans and programs.