SENEGAL. Declaration of the Population Policy, Ministry of Planning and Cooperation, Directorate of Human Resources, 1988. (Senegal, Ministry of Planning and Cooperation, Directorate of Human Resources, Déclaration de la Politique de Population, Dakar, 1988.)
3. THE POPULATION POLICY OF SENEGAL
FOUNDATIONS AND BASIC PRINCIPLES
The intervention of the State in what might appear to be an individual problem is justified and legitimized by the role which is granted to it by the Constitution itself. This role can be perceived in two ways:
- First, the Government has the authority to translate into concrete action the policies defined by the President of the Republic, in all areas of national life. Thus, it is also its rightful task to put into effect a policy in the area of population, as it does in the areas of hydraulics, agriculture, and fishing.
- Furthermore, the State has certain number of specific obligations to the family, which it recognizes, through marriage, as the natural and moral basis of any human community. In effect, the State is obligated to respect and protect individual persons (Article 6 of the Constitution). It must protect the family and attend to its physical and moral well-being. Although Article 16 recognizes that parents have the natural right and the duty to raise their children, it nonetheless clearly stipulates that "they (the parents) are supported in this task by the State and the public collectives".
In addition, the adoption of a population policy is an element of the strategy for the social and economic improvement of Africa as a whole. As of today, it is possible to attest with certainty to the emergence of a consensus on the African scale, that whatever the ideological position of the States regarding the current crisis, the population issue must be integrated as a fundamental component of the African strategy for economic improvement and the autonomous development of the continent.
This is why, at the end of the second African Population Conference, held in Arusha in January 1984, a plan of action called the "Kilimanjaro Population Program" was adopted. It concerns all the African states, including Senegal, which has, furthermore, subscribed to the various recommendations issued by both African and worldwide conferences.
The preamble to this Program reports that the African States note "with much anxiety the rapid growth of the population in the course of the last years, the pressures and constraints which it exerts on the development efforts of African governments and on the scant resources". They acknowledge that "the demographic problems are, at the current time, hindering the development of the African region".
It is therefore logical that the Priority Program for the Economic Improvement of Africa for the period 1986-1990, adopted by the OUA, recommends, among other measures having a direct or indirect effect on the population, the development of appropriate demographic policies.
Thus, in deciding to establish a population policy, Senegal is putting into practice an African recommendation, and, while seeking a solution of national problems, is contributing to the efforts at improvement undertaken on the continental scale.
If Senegal has adhered in this matter to the African recommendations, it is because the problems identified on the African level are the very ones with which it is itself confronted, and with respect to which, on the essential points, the analyses converge.
The diagnosis of the situation by national experts, supported by various studies and a collection of relevant data, as well as the severe short-term, and perhaps even medium-term economic crisis, demonstrates the necessity of developing a precise and voluntary population policy. Such a policy would also allow for all the activities having a direct or indirect effect on the population to be conceived in a coherent framework, a consequence whose desirability has been pointed out on numerous occasions.
This population policy, designed in accordance with the requirements of development, and taking fully into account demographic, economic, social, and cultural factors, must rest on certain principles to guide its action. The importance of these principles is all the greater since this policy will affect individuals and groups even in their intimate life.
The following are principles contained in the policy:
- Respect for the fundamental rights of individual persons, as these rights are defined in the Constitution and in the international texts to which Senegal subscribes.
- The necessity of preserving the family unit--the basic component of society and the framework most conducive to the healthy development of men, women, and children.
- Respect for the rights of individuals and couples to choose the size of their family and to control their fertility.
- An appeal to the responsibility of individuals, both as spouses and parents, with regard to their procreation and the demands of national development.
- Respect for the right of children to survival, health, education, and training.
- Respect for the right of individuals to have access to education and objective information on the issue of population, as well as to means to control their fertility.
- The necessity of taking into account the interrelation of demographic variables with economic and socio-cultural factors, leading to an integrated developmental approach.
- The necessity of realizing that the population issue is a fundamental element in development plans and strategies, and that Senegal has the right and duty to resolve its national demographic problems.
- The search for a broad consensus in the definition and application of the objectives of a population policy.
- Respect for the commitments undertaken by Senegal with regard to both the African community, to ensure the economic improvement and development of the continent in the framework of African solidarity, as affirmed in the preamble to the Constitution, and to the international community.
The population policy will establish the following objectives, which the implementation of the Program of Action and Priority Investment Program should make it possible to attain:
3.2.1 General Objectives
- To improve the quality of life and promote the establishment of well-being at all levels of the population. This action will be the fruit of progress accomplished in the economic and social spheres, thanks to the achievement of a better correspondence between human resources, both in quantitative and in qualitative terms, and the possibilities of development for the country.
- To reduce the morbidity and mortality rates, particularly among mothers and infants, by instituting maternal-child health programs, including family planning.
- To reduce the birth rate and the demographic growth rate by adopting appropriate measures.
- To support all actions tending to increase the exploitation of various regions and the improvement of the quality of life in them, in order to slow down the rural exodus and to ensure a better distribution of the population within the country.
- To improve the quality of life of the population in all regions by better taking care of basic needs in the areas of food and nutrition, health, social assistance, housing, education, training, and the environment, but also through better information, and leisure and cultural activities.
- To improve national competence in the area of population science through relevant training.
- To continue to improve knowledge about population problems by undertaking appropriate research in the areas of demography, sociology, history, development planning, etc.
This is to say, that Senegal advocates a global approach to its population problems, and that family planning constitutes, in this context, only one component of its national population policy.
3.2.2 Demographic Objectives: Perspectives
Although it is premature to determine quantitative demographic objectives for the population policy due to the lack of reliable scientific data, it is, nonetheless, useful to analyze demographic perspectives, in order to clarify the future choices of action that will permit Senegal to attain the goals that it has set for itself.
Thus, there are two different versions of the demographic projections of Project RAPID II-Senegal: a medium version and a low version. We present some elements of these two versions below, as an illustration.
Medium version: TABLE I
1986 2001 2011
Total fertility rate 7.10 6.44 5.80
Life expectancy at birth 48.7 56.0 60.9
Total population (thousands) 6,821 11,179 15,403
Urban population (%) 40.2 48.4 53.7
Required contraceptive use (%) 4.90 15.30 24.04
Medium version: TABLE II
1986-91 2001-06 2006-11
Birth rate per 1,000 population 49.5 43.5 41.7
Death rate per 1,000 population 17.1 11.4 9.9
Natural rate of increase (%/year) 3.24 3.21 3.18
It should be noted that the medium version gives special emphasis to a decrease in the mortality rate, which will certainly bring about that of the birth rate, and demonstrates that a dynamic strategy for the promotion of family planning can produce better results in terms of a reduction of the fertility rate and, thus, in the slowing of the growth rate of the population.
Alongside this first scenario, and using the same strategy, the low version of RAPID II yields a different evolution of the preceding indicators:
Low version: TABLE I
1986 2001 2011
Total fertility rate 7.10 5.75 4.50
Life expectancy at birth 48.7 57.5 63.4
Total population (thousands) 6,821 10,976 14,500
Urban population (%) 40.2 48.5 53.9
Required contraceptive use (%) 4.90 28.97 46.57
Low version: TABLE II
1986-91 2001-06 2006-11
Birth rate per 1,000 population 49.0 38.8 35.3
Death rate per 1,000 population 16.8 10.1 8.5
Natural rate of increase (%/year) 3.22 2.87 2.68
However, it is necessary to await the results of family planning programs and studies currently underway in order to determine precisely the quantitative objectives of the policy; these should, in any case, aim for a significant decrease in fertility.
3.3 POPULATION POLICY STRATEGIES
3.3.1 Maternal-child health
The mortality of both children and adults is a concern for the public health services. Nonetheless, the health of mothers and children remains the first priority.
Research shows that 58% of annual deaths are those of children under 5 years old, and that diarrheic ailments are the primary cause of death among children. According to statistics of the Ministry of Health, the principal causes of death and sickness among children age 0-5 are malaria (39%), diarrheic ailments (23.8%), and infectious diseases, that is respiratory illnesses (23%), scarlet fever (10.9%), tetanus (5.4%), and meningitis (3.5%).
Maternal mortality is very high--estimated in recent studies at 530 deaths per 100,000 live births. The principal causes of death are postpartum hemorrhages, dystostic states, and infections. Maternal mortality, moreover, is seriously affected by the dangers connected with multiple or close births, as well as with pregnancy in very young (under 20) or old (over 40) women.
The improvement of the state of health of children is a requisite for their health in adulthood, which is an important element in their productivity. In fact, there exists a direct correlation between the state of a person's health in childhood and in adulthood. Moreover, the mortality of young adults is a loss for a country where the coefficient of dependence is high.
This is also especially true for the health of mothers. In effect, women play a central role in the cohesion of the family and the education of children. They are also economic contributors of the first importance.
Improvement in the health of mothers and children will come about through the adoption of the following measures:
1. Strengthening and improvement of health and family education services and the regular organization of campaigns on a national level.
2. Strengthening and expansion of prenatal, postnatal, and child care consultation services.
3. Intensification and improvement of training for the personnel in charge of maternal-child health services. The organization of periodic retraining sessions for their benefit, including appropriate measures regarding traditional midwives.
4. Extension of vaccination to all of the country's children.
5. Improvement and expansion of the nutritional program, information on breast- and bottle-feeding, nourishment for children at a young age, and weaning conditions.
6. Promotion and diffusion on the national level of oral rehydration therapy.
7. Integration of information services on birth spacing into the framework of maternal-child health care centers.
3.3.2 Fertility and birth spacing
The total fertility rate of Senegalese women is among the highest in the world. It presents serious risks to the health of mothers and children. This is why birth spacing constitutes an important component of the policy of improving the health of mothers and children.
Moreover, the growing number of induced abortions calls for the promotion of family planning in order to provide better means of birth control, to safeguard the harmony of the family and of society, and to ensure the full development of men and women. To this end, the following measures are recommended:
1. Strengthening and improvement of information and communication programs designed to diffuse proper knowledge of contraceptive methods and the possibilities that they offer for reducing birth frequency.
2. Strengthening and improvement of educational programs relating to the issue of population, with the aim of sensitizing all levels of the population to the medical, medico-health, socio-economic, and socio-cultural advantages of family planning.
3. Systematic introduction of population education into school programs and training courses for trainers.
4. Strengthening, improvement, and expansion in all of the country's regions of family planning services, with three goals: to promote birth spacing, to combat sterility, and to combat sexually transmitted diseases.
5. Strengthening of family planning courses and training and retraining programs for the benefit of medical and paramedical personnel, to ensure optimal implementation of the national programs.
6. Harmonization and integration of government family planning programs with the goal of organizing them to achieve greater efficiency.
7. Adoption of appropriate measures to create an understanding of the effective application of a family code--in the sense of giving real protection for women and children and preserving harmony within the family unit.
8. Organization of periodic educational campaigns on the harm caused by early pregnancy and in favor of responsible parenting.
9. Appropriate support for public and private enterprises, the ONG, and private associations, in short, all physical and moral persons exercising significant activities in the sphere of family planning.
10. Continuous evaluation of family planning programs and services to achieve greater efficiency.
3.3.3 Promotion of women
The promotion of women is an essential condition for the success of any population policy. Despite the laws and measures already adopted by Senegal, the status of Senegalese women must be improved. For this purpose, it will be necessary to strengthen the policy of promoting Senegalese women through the adoption of the following measures:
1. Adoption of special measures designed to raise the rate of education and literacy among women and their general level of instruction.
2. Adoption of appropriate measures designed to promote the technical and professional training of women.
3. Adoption of special measures designed to promote the employment of women, their assumption of responsibility, and their professional development, as well as their access to credit.
4. Organization of campaigns to raise awareness and to educate men and women on family planning and other population problems.
5. Extensive distribution of technological innovations designed to make less burdensome household chores and the industrial and agricultural jobs generally performed by women.
6. Support for women's groups and organizations.
7. Provision of more child care centers and nurseries in rural and in urban areas in order to allow women to participate in productive activities and in socio-cultural activities in general.
8. Continuous organization of information campaigns designed to promote a positive image of women as dynamic and creative agents of economic and social development.
9. Adoption of specific measures targeting mothers who head families.
Some of these measures are specified in the Women's Plan of Action, adopted during the course of the women's decade; they remain to be put into action.
3.3.4 Promotion of youth
Young people constitute more than half of the population of Senegal. From their birth until their entry into the active population, they constitute a major preoccupation for the adult population, which must ensure the satisfaction of all their needs (in particular, food, health care, education, leisure, clothing, and lodging).
Because of the difficulties that they encounter, many adolescent youths do not succeed when they reach adulthood in securing the conditions necessary for their development, both physical and mental, and material and spiritual.
In particular, because of a serious lack of education, illiteracy, the absence of prospects for graduates, and unemployment and under-employment in rural and urban areas, many youths are reduced to idleness. This reality of life is the cause of crime, alcoholism, and drug addiction, especially in urban areas.
Thus, it is indispensable to adopt appropriate measures to favor the development of youth, such as the following:
1. Implementation of the Ten Year Action Plan for youth.
2. Integration of elements of family education into both the scholastic and the extra-curricular training of children and youth, to prepare them for responsible conduct in adulthood.
3. Support for youth organizations, and the establishment of a youth movement capable of offering young people the prospect for involvement, collaboration, and leisure activities within the framework of personal development and participation in real national development.
4. Implementation of a program to combat the lack of education and illiteracy among the young and preparation for their entry into professional life.
5. Expansion, equipment, and decentralization of educational, health, socio-educational, and socio-cultural infrastructure designed to further the development of young people.
6. Pursuit of a better understanding between parents and children by encouraging discussion of social problems.
7. Making youth aware of the risks involved in sexuality and early pregnancy.
8. Implementation of programs to raise awareness about dangers such as banditism, drugs, prostitution, and vagrancy.
9. Creation of jobs designed especially for youth to ensure their full participation in the work of national development.
3.3.5 Promotion of the elderly
To ensure the advancement and health of the elderly, it is advisable to take the following measures:
1. Establishment, in accordance with the World Action Plan on Aging, of policies and programs to educate, train, and incorporate the elderly into the process of economic and social development.
2. Implementation of research programs on the subjects of geriatrics and social gerontology.
3. Training of medical and paramedical personnel to manage better the needs of the elderly.
3.3.6 Preservation of the family
The family as a social, economic, and cultural entity is, in our African context, the framework for life and individual development.
Both in rural and urban areas, the Senegalese family is in search of a new equilibrium between tradition and modernity. This is why it is crucial today, more than ever, to protect and promote it.
Beyond the specific actions to be taken with regards to children, women, youth, and the elderly, it is advisable to do everything possible to ensure harmony and a better equilibrium within the family, including the following:
1. Reassertion of the value of the family as a framework for education, collaboration, and dialogue between men and women, parents and children.
2. Combat against the phenomena that destabilize the family, for a better protection of the integrity of the family unit.
3. Research and increased awareness of the nature and problems of the modern family.
3.3.7 Migration, urbanization, and management of territory
Historically, Senegal is characterized by important migratory movements which have determined, in part, the spatial distribution of its population. The colonial trade economy contributed to the concentration of a large part of the population in the central and western regions of the country (the peanut basin and the Dakar area). Furthermore, the needs of the territorial administration determined, in part, the principal zones of settlement.
Since independence, the damages of drought have caused an intensification of the rural exodus, more rapid urban growth, and an even greater regional imbalance, especially noticeable between the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The implementation of rural development projects in the south, and especially the great dams in the north, will bring about new movements and demographic concentrations. Thus, urbanization is accelerating, while vast regions of the country are being emptied and risk a lasting decline. To improve this situation, the following measures are advocated:
1. Finalization and application of the National Territory Management Plan and of regional plans of integrated development, which will be the essential policy tools in the area of population redistribution. This should bring about the progressive establishment of true regional poles of economic, social, and cultural development, where productive and creative activities will be initiated that will stabilize the local population and check migration toward the Dakar region.
2. Adoption of incentives for the establishment of small and medium-size enterprises in the interior of the country and new activities in the secondary cities, with the goal of a more balanced distribution of the national work force and an alleviation of the exodus to Dakar.
3. Rational management of the great dam zones, striving for their appropriate use to benefit, first of all, the local population, but also the national community as a whole.
4. Restructuring the urban infrastructure, the water supply, and waste disposal systems in spontaneously arising neighborhoods in Dakar and its environs, to improve the health conditions and the life of the population that resides there.
5. Adoption of effective measures to facilitate the return of emigrant workers and their dynamic reincorporation into the national economy.
Today, employment constitutes an essential preoccupation for the Senegalese. In rural areas under-employment is structural, because of the seasonal character of agricultural production (the rainy season lasts only three to six months). In urban areas, unemployment has not stopped growing, aggravated by the economic crisis and the difficulties encountered by many enterprises. Moreover, the numerous young people who graduate from professional training and higher education institutes can no longer be recruited for public employment, unless a place is found for them in the economic projects supported by the Government.
Yet, without ensuring the Senegalese stable and remunerative employment, it will be difficult to attain the success of the national population policy. Hence, it is important to promote the following measures, which have, moreover, been initiated by the Government, particularly within the framework of the New Agricultural Policy (NPA), the New Industrial Policy (NPI), and, more generally, the New Economic Policy (NPE):
1. Improvement and effective development of the results of agricultural research.
2. Reorganization of the market for agricultural products (both food products and land available for rent) in a way that will encourage a policy of self-sufficiency and food security, in accordance with the priorities set forth in the national plan.
3. Reorganization of agricultural cooperatives and support to economic interest groups (GIE), for a more effective distribution of responsibility in the definition, implementation, and control of rural development policies.
4. Promotion on the national scale, of concentrated investment in the work force, with special attention being given to interior regions.
5. Promotion, organization, and protection of the informal sector, the great supplier of employment.
6. Promotion of credit for agriculture, the informal sector, and small and medium-size enterprises.
7. Adoption of an appropriate tax system to stimulate the revival of national production and the demand for goods and services.
8. Rigorous regulation of human resources, so as to adapt them to the actual developmental needs of society.
9. Strengthening of the National Employment Fund.
3.3.9 Studies and research
Besides the operations undertaken by parapublic and private organizations, Senegal has carried out two national demographic surveys, a general population census, a fertility survey, a demographic and health survey, and a survey on the infant mortality rate in rural areas, and is preparing a general population census for 1988.
In general, great progress has been made in understanding the state of the population, as well as fertility, but many significant gaps remain in the study of mortality and migration. Yet, the data on birth rates, mortality rates, and migration must all be simultaneously taken into account in defining a national population policy.
On another level, we lack data on birth spacing activities carried out in the national and regional plans. Yet this data is essential in order to carry out these activities and to determine their impact, for a better orientation of national and local efforts.
There are only a few thorough studies available on the problems of urbanization and territory management--questions that are of importance for Senegal.
Thus, there remains much to do to promote a better understanding of these problems in their totality and their integration into developmental plans.
The following measures could contribute to this end:
1. Reorganization and strengthening of the civil status system for better registration of vital statistics, which will allow a more thorough understanding of demographic levels and tendencies.
2. Production, distribution, and the regular evaluation of civil status statistics.
3. Periodic general census of the population (once every ten years).
4. Improvement of administrative censuses.
5. Periodic surveys and studies on fertility, and especially on mortality and migration, for a better understanding of population movements.
6. Intensification of the collection and use of current statistics on health, education, employment, housing, etc., for better development planning and better monitoring of the population policy.
7. Promotion of more effective kinds of surveys and studies that entail the regular collection of information on population and development: surveys on lifestyles, budget-consumption, the work force, etc.
8. Thorough studies on the relations between demographic and other socio-economic variables.
9. Development of methodologies for the high-level integration of population variables into national and regional development plans.
10. Studies on the integration of population questions into the entire education system, from elementary to superior levels.
11. Development of special informational, educational, and communication programs on the population issue.
3.3.10 Information, education, and communication on the population issue
To carry out the task of raising the awareness of a population of which a majority is not yet literate or educated, it is necessary to promote appropriate forms of communication that are able to lead to progress in combating mortality and morbidity, numerous and close births, and the various other ills that are widespread in the population and, more particularly, the young. It is a matter of involving all members of society and mobilizing them for carrying out the objectives established with respect to population and family planning, and equally for implementing the other parts of the population policy. From this perspective, the use of national languages will be favored. As a consequence, the following measures are recommended:
1. Strengthening and extension to the entire country of programs of functional literacy in national languages.
2. Development of documentation and appropriate materials for informing and educating men, women, and youth on the problems associated with birth spacing and all the other parts of the population policy.
3. Mobilization of the media, cultural organizations, female training centers, groups promoting women, and other socio-educational centers to disseminate information, particularly among women, for the success of the population policy.
4. Raising the awareness of men as to the importance of questions of population, family life education, and education of their children.
5. Raising the awareness of people in positions of power and political, religious, and customary, notables, to ensure their full participation in implementing the population policy in all its details.
6. Development of data banks and other networks designed to furnish complete and up-to-date information on the problems of population and development.
7. Strengthening and coordination of community activities and media programs designed to promote family planning.
3.3.11 Legislative measures and regulation
With regard to existing laws, the revision and clarification of certain tendencies is recommended, in order to promote implementation of the population policy.
In effect, the current tax and social system favors large families and, as such, has an obvious pro-natalist orientation.
It favors employees with numerous offspring or with heavy social responsibilities, both in their periods of activity and in their retirement. It is appropriate to correct this orientation and provide, if the need should arise, dissuasive measures.
It is necessary to revise the tax system in the sense of reducing discrimination against single people and smaller families, since the consequence of a reduction in one's tax obligations according to marital status and number of children encourages the creation of large families.
Furthermore, a revision of the relevant provisions of the family code can also contribute to the success of the population policy if appropriate measures are taken to ensure its effective application.
Finally, it is important to revise the law regarding the deadlines for declaring information on civil status, to ensure better registration and preservation of this data.
4. THE INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
The population policy will be advanced through the efforts of several kinds of institutions.
4.1 A decision-making institution:
The interministerial council on population, presided over by the Head of State. The decree organizing the National Population Commission indicates that recommendations with respect to population policy are to be considered by the interministerial council.
4.2 A national consultative structure:
The purpose of the National Population Commission (CONAPOP) is to assist the government in the definition of policy with respect to population. This commission is under the Minister of Planning, who presides over it. The Director of Human Resources is its Secretary.
4.3 A planning, coordinating, monitoring, and evaluating institution:
The Directorate of Human Resources, within the Ministry of Planning and Cooperation, created during the ministerial reorganization of 1986. This Directorate includes a Division of Population Policy and Studies and proposes policy relating to population in collaborating with other concerned agencies.
4.4 Several executive structures, the principal of which are:
1. The Ministry of Social Development, which includes directorates having an essential role in carrying out the government's social policy: in particular, the Directorates of the Status of Women and Family Welfare. With respect to birth spacing, the institutional collaboration between the Ministry of Social Development and the Ministry of Public Health should be strengthened and, if need be, enlarged.
2. The Ministry of Public Health, the principal institution responsible for the protection of mothers and infants.
3. The Ministry of Interior, responsible for the civil status system and territorial management.
4. The Ministry Delegated Responsibility over Emigrants, which studies problems related to emigration.
5. The Ministry of Public Service and Labor.
6. The Ministry of National Education.
7. The Ministry of Youth and Sports.
8. The Ministry of Urban Affairs and the Habitat.
9. The Ministry of Culture.
10. The Commission for Insertion, Reinsertion, and Employment.
4.5 National structures for study and research:
- The Ministry of Economy and Finances (Directorate of Statistics), responsible, essentially, for collecting and analyzing demographic data.
- The University of Dakar, the Center for the Study of Civilizations, the Cultural Archives of Senegal, The National School of Applied Economics, the Islamic Institute, and other structures having important research programs relating to socio-economics and population.
4.6 Structures of cooperative study and research:
Within the framework of bilateral or multilateral scientific cooperation, some foreign research institutions are conducting or supporting research on programs relating to the issue of population.
4.7 Contributing structures:
Private associations and non-governmental organizations.
The management of the population policy must be carried out within an institutional framework appropriate to achieving maximum efficiency in coordinating, monitoring and evaluating the activities that result from the policy. The great number of areas and structures involved and the rapidity of execution required impose this necessity.
Thus, the CONAPOP, itself an example of efforts at collaboration and coordination, should be restructured and strengthened with regional offices, and the Directorate of Human Resources, which is to provide its secretariat, supplied with suitable logistical and human resources.
Finally, it seems appropriate to contemplate regular meetings being held by the Interministerial Population Council, presided over by the Head of State.
5. MONITORING AND EVALUATION
With the adoption of a national population policy, it becomes indispensable to establish effective structures for monitoring and evaluation, whose tasks will consist of ensuring:
- Periodic and continuous monitoring and evaluation of national and sectoral policies, programs, and projects relating to population, on the basis of objectives clearly defined from the beginning.
- The mobilization and rational use of available financial and material skills and resources to organize socio-economic and demographic studies aimed at determining the impact of various population programs, in order to carry out eventual readjustments.
- The promotion of the participation of local communities in the evaluation of population programs.
To this end, it seems useful to set up a Technical Committee to monitor population projects. This Committee will bring together representatives of the structures and institutions executing population projects.