UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA.† National Population Policy, 1992.† (National Population Policy, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, President's Office, Planning Commission, March 1992, 25 p.)
The main goal of the National Population Policy is to extend the horizon of the country's development plans whose principal objective is to move Tanzanians away from poverty and extend their horizon of standard of living.† Since our country's independence 30 years ago, we have dealt with various issues pertaining to population, including our unfailing census taking every ten years, and health programmes to reduce mortality in the country.† Other measures have been efforts to reduce the rate of rural-urban migration - especially to Dar es Salaam - and measures taken to encourage people living in areas with problems of land scarcity to move to other areas in the country.† Development plans also deal with employment issues in our country.† Since 1974 the Government in collaboration with other public and non-government institutions is providing family planning services as part of maternal and child health services.
All these issues have been dealt with in isolation without due consideration of the impact of successes in these activities on population growth trends in the country.† Although, for example, mortality rates in the country are still high compared to situations in other countries - particularly developed countries - progress made in spreading health services in the country has reduced mortality rates to an extent that the population growth rate has been increasing from under 2 percent per year in the 1950s to about 3 percent in the 1980s.† As the result of this situation the population in the country has increased from 9 million in 1957/58 to 23.5 in 1988.
This increase in the population - as explained in this policy - together with the poor technology used by Tanzanians has shown adverse impact on various sectors of the economy and the country's environment.† Although the country's population density is still low - at 26 persons per square kilometre - settlements are spreading to agricultural marginal lands and the consumption of natural resources is increasing to the extent that threatens to turn our country into a desert.
This Policy, therefore, gives our country guidelines for dealing with all population issues in an integrated manner, and its implementation will give a new dimension and direction to development plans by making population issues the basis for the preparation of these plans.
It is my expectation that every person responsible for the implementation of this Policy will play his/her part fully and that the foundation of this implementation will be the people themselves.
Hon. J.S. Malecela, Prime Minister and First Vice-President.
Tanzania's fundamental national goals and development strategy are largely inspired by the Arusha Declaration and have clearly been reflected in the successive national development plans.† The triple goals of economic growth, equity and development through self-reliance are being pursued through emphasis on rural development, mass literacy and provision of basic needs to the people.† Over 80 percent of the adult people are now literate and enrollment in primary schools has reached 75 percent.† Other basic services like health care and clean and safe water are being brought within easy reach of people.
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is estimated to have grown at an annual rate of about 6 percent during the 1960's and at 4 percent during the 1970's.† During the first half of the 1980's, Tanzania faced serious economic strains which resulted into very low average GDP growth rate of only 1 percent per annum.† In the second half of the 1980's the national economy started showing signs of recovery and the average annual growth rate of GDP was put at 3.8 percent.† At the same time, the annual population growth rate was 3.2 percent in the 1970's and 2.8 percent in the 1980's.† As a result during the period up to 1980, the GDP per capita average annual rate of growth was 2 percent whereas during the period of 1980-85, the GDP per capita declined at 1.5 - 2.5 percent per annum.† Although the average GDP per capita increased by 1 percent per annum during the second half of the 1980's, it is evident that the high population growth rate contributes to the low rate of increase of GDP per capita in the country.
Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) and its Governments have been concerned, from the outset, with the implications of population growth for the achievement of various economic goals and national development, and have taken due account of population trends in the national development plans.† For this reason, in recent years various programs to educate Party and Government leaders on the relationship between population growth trend and national development have been instituted.† In 1986, for instance, a number of awareness creation seminars for various leaders on issues related to population growth have been conducted.† One among these seminars was conducted for members of CCM National Executive Committee (NEC), Ministers of both governments and members of the Zanzibar Revolutionary Council in November, 1986.† An important outcome of that seminar was the directive to the government to prepare a comprehensive national population policy.
Historically, a population policy is an integral part of a comprehensive socio-economic development plan, as there is a clear relationship between these two issues.† For instance, there is evidence that the need for the family to have many children declines if there is:
i)††††† Effective health services for all people which reduce levels of infant mortality and death rates in general.
ii)†††† Universal education, especially women education and professional employment.
iii)††† Rural development, especially modern agriculture and rural electrification.
iv)††† Old age pension schemes and other social security benefits.
The expected outcome of a good and long lasting population policy is therefore the promotion of rapid and sustainable economic growth and national development which in turn facilitate the provision of basic social services to all people.† For this reason population policy and social economic development are inseparable, and indeed affect each other.
The formulation, adoption and the beginning of the implementation of the National Population Policy are basic steps in ensuring that population and development are viewed as two phenomena which are mutually supportive and fully integrated.† The government and people of the United Republic of Tanzania intend to deal with population growth problems in the best ways possible and which are acceptable to the society.† The implementation of this policy therefore will respect individuals' human rights and religious beliefs.
In short, this policy document on population and development deals with the following areas:
i)††††† The introduction, which elaborates the historical perspective on population in Tanzania, sources of population growth, eventual outcomes of high population growth rate including the detailed goals of the policy itself.
ii)†††† The relationship between population and development in various socio-economic sectors.
iii)††† Problems of special population groups in society like women, children, youths, elderly and the disabled.
iv)††† Policy objectives and responsibilities of various sectors in the implementation of this policy.
It is the duty and right of every citizen, especially leaders at various levels of society, to fully participate in translating, integrating and elaborating in deeds the goals and objectives of this important policy; and eventually to prepare measures and strategies of implementation and implement them as required.
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Chapter Four.† Goals and Responsibilities of Sectors
B.††† Responsibilities of sectors
55.†† In order to succeed in achieving the aims of the national population policy, the goals shall be:
i.††††† To improve the demographic knowledge base, i.e., data collection, processing, analysis, projections and research on population and development on a regular basis.† This will provide reliable data and statistics at known intervals [or] periods for development planning purposes.
ii.†††† To raise the desire, among leaders and the public at large, to be aware and explain issues, including various problems related to population and development.† This will create a conducive environment for the family and the community to participate in the preparation of their socio-economic development plans as well as in the promotion of their skills and technology.
iii.††† To establish an appropriate information, education, communication system which among other things, will encourage the provision and the use of services related to family planning and responsible parenthood, such as motivating mothers to breastfeed their children for a period of not less than two years and directing a significant part of family planning programs to cover men so that eventually couples are able to decide and plan the size of their family.
iv.††† To make family planning means and services easily accessible so as to reduce maternal and child mortality.
v.†††† To prepare young people, before marriage, through proper upbringing and the provision of family life education so that in future they become good and responsible parents.
vi.††† To educate the public of the benefits of women marrying and bearing children after the age of eighteen years.
vii.†† To improve women status in society by reviewing existing laws in areas where their rights and those of children, are undermined within the family, community and places of work.† Also to provide women adequate education and appropriate technology in order, inter alia, to lessen their daily workload and assure them equal opportunity for development in the society.
viii.† To develop the labour force and emphasize its proper use by reviewing the existing employment policies with the aim of promoting efficiency and responsible attitude at work places.† This includes expansion of primary school enrollment, technical education and other training so as to promote the development of skills and talents of the youth, as this will provide an environment that will expand their employment opportunities.
ix.††† To prepare and implement co-ordinated urban, rural and regional development plans for rapid development in the country and to reduce the rate of rural-urban migration.
x.†††† To prevent further degradation of environment and eventually reclaim it by controlling the current destruction of land and forests and encroachment of game reserves.
xi.††† To motivate the disabled and enable them to participate fully in their development activities and those of the nation at large.† This will be done through improving existing programs which are designed to raise their welfare, including providing them with education, skills, working tools and employment.
xii.†† To raise the well-being of the elderly by according them the respect they deserve in the society and by reducing their problems of loneliness and/or isolation by initiating programs which will involve relatives and the communities they live in, in order to enable them [to] lead a comfortable life.
B.††† Responsibilities of sectors
56.†† The main thrust of population activities in the recent past has been the creation of awareness of population issues and the promotion of family planning.† In order to attain the goals of the National Population Policy, emphasis should therefore be focused on ensuring that ministries, departments and various organisations undertake their responsibilities as outlined in this policy.† Specific organs within these institutions to be given the task of carrying out implementation responsibilities have to be identified as well.
Integrated MCH/FP programmes
57.†† The roles of the Ministry, Departments and various organisations in the implementation of the integrated maternal and child health/family planning programmes will be:
i.††††† to strengthen the capacity to deliver maternal and child health services through appropriate training of personnel;
ii.†††† to upgrade and equip health facilities for the delivery of MCH/FP services;
iii.††† to utilize information, education and communication programmes to promote various family planning methods in order to raise the number of users;
iv.††† To establish an MCH/FP service statistics system for monitoring and evaluation purpose.† Special attention will be given to the cost of these services and all activities will be carried out within the context of the existing Primary Health Care (PHC) system.† Among other issues that the programme shall focus on are:
a)†††† To take appropriate measures in the spheres of law, education, social services etc., to protect and promote the goals of MCH/FP programme;
b)†††† To encourage and assist non-government organisations (NGOs) [to] continue with their contribution in this area; and,
c)†††† To reduce the incidence of pregnancies [in] women below the age of 18 years and those over the age of 35 years and at short intervals of less than two years.
58††† The institutions which will facilitate the implementation of these tasks include:
i.††††† The Ministry of Health
ii.†††† Tanzania Nutrition Centre (Tanzania Nutrition Institute)
iii.††† Attorney General's office
Information, Education and Communication (IEC)
59.†† The IEC activities shall be apportioned appropriately to reach particular target groups.† These include policymakers, policy implementers and the grassroot actors.† These programmes should therefore provide the decision makers with the needed information to explain the relationship between population issues and development.† To achieve this, a system of accumulating and retrieving population and development information shall be established.† Special arrangement shall also be developed to popularize family planning, by interactive education and by eradicating misconceptions regarding family planning methods and consolidating the need to promote these services.† Appropriate environment for this purpose entails measures to motivate the public and the training of specialists in population IEC for various mass media, i.e., radio, the press etc.† The roles of the Ministries, departments and various organisations responsible for information, education and communication are as follows:
i.††††† To make the IEC strategy an important link in shaping positive attitudes in population and family planning issues.† Use should be made of existing mass organisations (UWT, WAZAZI, VIJANA, OTTU) and the mass media for this purpose.
ii.†††† To set up an IEC programme which will provide guidelines, coordination and technical support to all population education activities and to maintain working links with other sectors.
iii.††† To prepare inventories and conduct complete evaluation of all IEC materials on population and development existing in the country.† This exercise will include an assessment of the coverage and efficacy of the various methods used.† This would constitute the basis for revision and updating the IEC strategies to suit changing circumstances.
iv.††† Family life education shall progressively be incorporated into primary, secondary and teacher education curricula and in all education activities of various ministries.
v.†††† To give priority to training of specialists in population information and dissemination.
60.†† The institutions that shall be involved in implementation of this programme include:
i.††††† The Planning Commission
ii.†††† Ministry of Broadcasting and Information
iii.††† Prime Ministerís office and the Chief Ministerís office
iv.††† Ministry of Education and Culture
v.†††† Institute of Adult Education
vi.††† Ministry of Community Development, Women and Children.
Women in development
61.†† Emphasis shall be on a systematic inclusion of women in the country's development programmes.† The role of ministries, departments and organizations in involving women in development activities will therefore be as follows:
i.††††† To increase employment opportunities for women at all levels.† This should be done gradually with due attention paid to merit;
ii.†††† To review and amend laws, especially those relating to marriage, family, property and employment, that are inherently sex discriminatory;
iii.††† To raise the minimum age at marriage for girls to 18 years;
iv.††† To conduct research and to ensure proper documentation of womenís economic contribution;
v.†††† To promote womenís education at post-primary level.† Young women should be encouraged and assisted in taking up science and technical education and vocational training;
vi.††† To enable women to benefit fully from their contribution to agriculture through credit and marketing, community development, and social welfare.† Also their specific needs and interests should be adequately addressed;
vii.†† To lighten the heavy burden of work of rural women, through the application of appropriate technology in agriculture, cottage industry and domestic chores;
viii.† In recognition of the dual role of women as mothers and workers, day care services for infants and children shall be established wherever possible; and
ix.††† To increase number of women in decision making positions.
62.†† Institutions which will be responsible for implementing these tasks are as follows:
i.††††† Ministry of Community Development, Women Affairs and Children
ii.†††† Ministry of Labour and Youth Development
iii.††† Chief Minister's Office
vi.††† Attorney General's Office
Children, Youth, Elderly and the Disabled
63.†† This programme shall take cognizance of the dominance of this group in the population.† At the same time, and with regard to children and the youth, the programme shall be the link and integral part of the implementation of all policies on the development of children and the youth.† In particular the following issues shall be stressed:† education and training; employment; family life education; recreation; and problems of the elderly and the disabled.† Ministries, Departments and various organizations will therefore have to take the following specific measures:
i.††††† To continue with emphasis on vocational and technical education, as well as on skills formation programmes outside the educational system, tailored to the needs of the labour market, self employment and income generating schemes;
ii.†††† To take measures to moderate the flow of rural migrants to urban areas through special programmes for youths in the rural areas;
iii.††† To take measures to mitigate problems of low income and loneliness of the elderly and the disabled.
64.†† In order to effect the implementation of the National Population Policy, in relation to Children, Youths, Elderly and the Disabled, the following institutions shall participate fully:
i.††††† Ministry of Labour and Youth
ii.†††† Ministry of Community Development, Women and Children
iii.††† Chief Minister's Office
vi.††† Ministry of Education and Culture
ix.††† Presidential Trust Fund for Self Reliance
Agriculture, Food and Nutrition
65.†† In order to solve the problems of agriculture, food and nutrition, the policy shall aim at mitigating the burden of rural woman who play a major role in providing the basic family needs, ensuring food security for the nation, and expanding nutrition education.† Therefore, various ministries, departments and organizations will have the following responsibilities:
i.††††† Promotion of the use of better farm implements as well as techniques and practices of modern farming;
ii.†††† Improving storage, processing and the distribution of food crops produced at the household, community and national level;
iii.††† Pay[ing] special attention to the needs of children, pregnant women and lactating mothers as well as providing systematic education on food and nutrition.
66.†† The responsible institutions in the implementation of the above are:
v.†††† Ministry of Community Development, Women and Children.
Environment and Rural Development
67.†† The roles of the respective ministries, departments and various institutions in relation to environment and rural development programmes shall include:
i.††††† To review and up-date laws pertaining to encroachment of protected lands in order to bring them in line with [the] current situation and facilitate their effective enforcement;
ii.†††† To promote research on the conservation of environment.† In particular, in relation to fuel wood conservation, the search for new and alternative sources of energy shall be stepped up; and with regard to degraded land and other natural resources appropriate reclamation measures shall be initiated.† In addition, examination of the current use of available resources shall be carried out with a view to rationalize allocation of resources among various uses;
iii.††† To prevent encroachment and to promote the safeguarding of protected areas because their size is dwindling due to the establishment of human settlements in these areas.† The encroaching population shall be provided with alternative land;
iv.††† To encourage and support the introduction of scientific farming practices in order to raise productivity in agriculture while guaranteeing the conservation of land.† These measures shall go together with the formulation of land policy to safeguard the interests of nationals.† Integrated rural and urban planning shall be promoted in order to mitigate the degradation of the urban environment;
v.†††† To include environmental issues in formal and non-formal education and to use mass media to create awareness and to sensitize public opinion on this subject.
Training, Statistics and Research
68.†† Being aware of the importance of training, statistics and research in the implementation of the policy, ministries, departments and various institutions will have the following responsibilities in the implementation of this programme:
i.††††† To ensure that demography and population studies are a permanent feature of the teaching and research programmes at higher learning institutions in the country.† A module on population shall be made part of a central course such as development studies, taught to all undergraduate students.
ii.†††† Conducting workshops regularly at the national and regional levels in the use of demographic data and projections in population and development planning and programming;
iii.††† To implement the existing laws with the aim of improving the vital registration systems and ensure timely processing/analysis and dissemination of population and development data;
iv.††† To intensify efforts to collect, process, analyze and utilize statistics for planning and programme implementation.† In this, priority should be placed on the collection and analysis of data needed for integrating population variables in planning at regional as well as district and ward levels;
v.†††† To find ways of conducting an inter-censal national demographic survey.† Such a survey will provide better estimates of mortality and fertility rates, checks on population projections based on previous census for the benefit of various programmes;
vi.††† To conduct research designed to provide answers to questions of a practical nature and thereby aid in the implementation of the policy;
vii.†† Launching a research programme which addresses the needs of implementation of the population policy including the need to change the direction of the policy;
viii.† Accord priority [to] special research into the problems related to particular issues of the policy such as gender issues, and problems of the youth, the elderly and the disabled;
ix.††† To consolidate the IEC programme by producing and presenting research results in a form that facilitates communication among the various persons dealing with population issues.
69.†† The institutions responsible for the implementation of the above include:
i.††††† The Planning Commission
ii.†††† The University of Dar es Salaam
iii.††† Sokoine University of Agriculture
iv.††† Institute of Development Management Mzumbe
v.†††† Attorney General's Office
70.†† An effective implementation of the National Population Policy will mitigate and possibly wipe out socio-economic development problems caused by rapid increase of the population in the country.† The success of its implementation, however, will depend on the following main issues:
i.††††† Commitment of individuals, families, departments, ministries, parastatal and non-governmental organizations, religious bodies and other mass organizations, to their implementation role as stipulated in the National Population Policy;
ii.†††† The proper implementation of various plans, programmes and policies on socio-economic development such as:
--†††† Improving and consolidating adult, primary and technical education as well as primary health care and family planning;
--†††† Policies related to agriculture, livestock, food and nutrition, women and development, energy, science and technology, water etc.
71.†† The Government at all levels should ensure that everybody involved in the implementation of this policy plays his part as required.
72.†† The Government and the people of Tanzania are committed to solving the problems caused by the rapid population increase, through strategies acceptable to the Tanzanian society, and by paying due attention to and respecting human rights and religious beliefs.† The basic strategies of implementing this policy, therefore, shall be educating each other on the policy itself and the requirements of its implementation.† Implementation of this policy therefore is to educate the people on the policy itself and the requirements for its implementation.† Laws will be enacted to provide for particular aspects of the policy which otherwise cannot be implemented.
73.†† The implementation of this policy will necessitate the formation and consolidation of implementation co-ordinating institutions.† This includes:
i.††††† The formation of the Tanzania Council for Population and Development
ii.†††† Strengthening the Population Planning and Policy Unit into a department
iii.††† Strengthening the existing National Population Committee by according it the requisite status.
74.†† The roles and responsibilities of these institutions will be elaborated in the programme of implementation of the policy.† In general, the implementation in every sector will be, to a large extent, through the existing institutional arrangement[s] in those sectors which in turn will have to be strengthened.