Chagas Disease

1) Campos, M.A., Closel, M., Valente, E.P., Cardoso, J.E., Akira, S., Alvarez-Leite, J.I., Ropert, C., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2004). Impaired production of proinflammatory cytokines and host resistance to acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in mice lacking functional myeloid differentiation factor 88.  Journal of Immunology 172: 1711-1718.

2) Bartholomeu, D.C., Ropert, C., Melo, M.B., Parroche, P.,  Junqueira, C.F., Teixeira, S.M., Sirois, C., Kasperkovitz, P.,  Knetter, C.F., Lien, E., Latz, E., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2008).  Recruitment and Endo-Lysosomal activation of TLR9 in Dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Journal of Immunology 181:1333-1344.

3) Caetano, B.C., Carmo, B.B., Melo, M.B., Cerny, A., dos Santos, S.L., Bartholomeu, D.C., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2011) Requirement of UNC93B1 reveals a critical role for TLR7 in host resistance to primary infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Journal of Immunology 187:1903-1911.

4) Junqueira, C., Santos, L.I., Galvão-Filho, B., Teixeira, S.M., Rodrigues, F.G., DaRocha, W.D., Chiari, E., Jungbluth, A.A., Ritter, G., Gnjatic, S., Old, L.J., Gazzinelli, R.T.  (2011). Trypanosoma cruzi as an effective cancer antigen delivery vector. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108:19695-19700.



             1) Parroche, P., Lauwn, F.N., Goutagny, N., Latz, E., Monks, B.G., Visintin, A., Halmen, K.A., Lamphier, M., Olivier, M., Bartholomeu, D.C., Gazzinelli, R.T., Golenbock, D.T. (2007). Malaria hemozoin is immunologically inert but radically enhances innate responses by presenting DNA to Toll-Like receptor 9. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104:1919-1924..

2) Franklin, B.S., Parroche, P., Lauw, F., Ropert, C., Ataide, M. A., de Oliveira, R., Pereira, D., Tada, M.S., Nogueira, P., Pereira da Silva, L.H. Björkbacka, H., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T.  (2009) Malaria primes the innate immune response due to interferon- induced enhancement of toll-like receptor expression and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106:5789-5794.

3) Sharma, S., DeOliveira, R.B., Kalantari, P., Parroche, P., Goutagny, N., Jiang, Z., Chan, J., Bartholomeu, D.C., Lauw, F., Hall, J.P., Barber, G.N., Gazzinelli, R.T., Fitzgerald, K.A., Golenbock, D.T. (2011)Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity 35:194-207.

4) Franklin, B.S., Ishizaka, S.T., Lamphier, M., Gusovsky, F., Hansen, H., Rose, J., Zheng, W., Ataíde, M.A., de Oliveira, R.B., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2011). Therapeutical targeting of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors prevents experimental cerebral malaria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108:3689-3694.

5) Kalantari, P., Deoliveira, R.B., Chan, J., Corbett , Y., Rathinam, V., Stutz, A., Latz, E., Gazzinelli, R.T., Golenbock, D.T., Fitzgerald, K.A. (2013) Dual Engagement of the NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes by Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin and DNA during Malaria. Cell Reports. pii: S2211-1247(13)00759-6.

6) Ataide, M.A., Andrade, W.A., Zamboni, D.S., Wang, D., Souza, M.C., Franklin, B.S., Elian, S., Martins, F.S., Pereira, D., Reed, G., Fitzgerald, K.A., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2014) Malaria-Induced NLRP12/NLRP3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation and Hypersensitivity to Bacterial Superinfection. PLoS Pathog 10 (1): e1003885.



1) Melo, M.B., Kasperkovitz, P., Cerny, A., Könen-Waisman ,S., Kurt-Jones, E.A., Lien, E., Beutler, B., Howard, J.C., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2010). UNC93B1 mediates host resistance to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathogens 6:e1001071.

2) Béla, S.R., Dutra, M.S., Mui, E., Montpetit, A., Oliveira, F.S., Oliveira, S.C., Arantes, R.M., Antonelli, L.R., McLeod, R., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2012). Impaired innate immunity in mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 leads to defective type 1 T cell responses, B cell expansion, and enhanced susceptibility to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Infection and Immunity 80:4298-4308.

3) Dutra, M.S., Béla, S.R., Peixoto-Rangel, A.L., Fakiola, M., Cruz, A.G., Gazzinelli, A., Quites, H.F., Bahia-Oliveira, L.M., Peixe, R.G., Campos, W.R., Higino-Rocha, A.C., Miller, N.E., Blackwell, J.M., Antonelli, L.R., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2013) Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-Helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 207:152-163.

4) Andrade, W.A., Souza, M.C., Ramos-Martinez, E., Nagpal, K., Dutra, M.S., Melo, M.B., Bartholomeu, D.C., Ghosh, S., Golenbock, D.T., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2013) Combined action of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like Receptors and TLR11/TLR12 imparts resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. Cell Host and Microbe 13:42-53.


Visceral Leishmaniasis

1) Resende, D.M., Caetano, B.C., Dutra, M., Penido, M., Abrantes, C., Verly, R., Resende, J., Piloveloso, D., Rezende, S., Bruna-Romero, O., Fernandes, A.P., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2008).  Epitope mapping and protective immunity elicited by adenovirus expressing the Leishmania amastigote specific A2 antigen: Correlation with IFN-g and cytolytic activity by CD8+ T cells. Vaccine 26:4585-4593.

2) Fernandes, A., Costa, M., Coelho, E., Michalick, M., Defreitas, E., Melo, M., Luiztafuri, W., Resende, D., Hermont, V., Abrantes, C., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2008).  Protective immunity against challenge with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in beagle dogs vaccinated with recombinant A2 protein. Vaccine 26: 5888-5895.

3) Costa, M.M., Andrade, H.M., Bartholomeu, D.C., Freitas, L.M., Pires, S.F., Chapeaurouge, A.D., Perales, J., Ferreira, A.T., Giusta, M.S., Melo, M.N., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2011). Analysis of Leishmania chagasi by 2-D difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) and immunoproteomic: identification of novel candidate antigens for diagnostic test and vaccine. Journal of Proteome Research 10:2172-2184.

Critical Reviews                 

1) Gazzinelli R.T., Denkers, E.Y. (2006). Protozoan encounters with Toll-like receptor signalling pathways: implications for host parasitism. Nature Reviews Immunology 6:895-906.

2) Junqueira, C., Caetano, B., Bartholomeu, D.C., Melo, M.B., Ropert, C., Rodrigues, M.M., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2010). The endless race between Trypanosoma cruzi and host immunity: lessons for and beyond Chagas disease. Expert Review of Molecular Medicine 12:e29.

             3) Fernandes, A.P., Coelho, E.A., Machado-Coelho, G.L., Grimaldi, G.Jr., Gazzinelli, R.T. (2012). Making an anti-amastigote vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis: rational, update and perspectives.Current Opinion in Microbiology 15:476-485.

            4) Gazzinelli, R.T., Mendonça-Neto, R., Howard, J., Lilue, J., Sher, A. (2014) Innate sensing of Toxoplasma gondii: an evolutionary tale of mice, cats and men. Cell Host & Microbe 15:132-138.