The Public Health Disparities
Geocoding Project Monograph

Geocoding and Monitoring US Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health:
An introduction to using area-based socioeconomic measures
WHY?
READ MORE
HOW TO
TRY IT OUT!
TOOLS
Executive Summary
Introduction
Publications
Geocoding
Generating ABSMs
Analytic Methods
Multi-level Modeling
Visual Display
Case Example
U.S. Census Tract Poverty Data
Glossary
PUBLICATIONS
1

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Painting a truer picture of US socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 312-323.

2

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Race/ethnicity, gender, and monitoring socioeconomic gradients in health: a comparison of area-based socioeconomic measures—The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2003; 93: 1655-1671.

3

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian S. Monitoring Socioeconomic Inequalities in Sexually Transmitted Infections, Tuberculosis, and Violence: Geocoding and Choice of Area-Based Socioeconomic Measures--The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). Public Health Rep 2003; 118:240-260.

4

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Choosing area based socioeconomic measures to monitor social inequalities in low birth weight and childhood lead poisoning: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project (US). J Epidemiol Community Health 2003; 57:186-199.

5

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Geocoding and monitoring of US socioeconomic inequalities in mortality and cancer incidence: does the choice of area-based measure and geographic level matter?: The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Epidemiol 2002; 156:471-482.

6

Krieger N, Waterman P, Chen JT, Soobader MJ, Subramanian SV, Carson R. Zip code caveat: bias due to spatiotemporal mismatches between zip codes and US census-defined geographic areas--The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:1100-1102.

7

Krieger N, Waterman P, Lemieux K, Zierler S, Hogan JW. On the wrong side of the tracts? Evaluating the accuracy of geocoding in public health research. Am J Public Health 2001; 91:1114-1116.

8

Krieger N, Zierler S, Hogan JW, Waterman P, Chen J, Lemieux K, Gjelsvik A. Geocoding and measurement of neighborhood socioeconomic position. In: Kawachi I, Berkman LF (eds). Neighborhoods and Health. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003; 147-178.

9

Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, and Krieger N. Racial Disparities in Context: A Multilevel Analysis of Neighborhood Variations in Poverty and Excess Mortality Among Black Populations in Massachusetts. Am J Public Health 2005; 95: 260-265.

10

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Subramanian SV. Geocoding and monitoring US socioeconomic inequalities in health: an introduction to using area-based socioeconomic measures -- The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project monograph. Boston, MA: Harvard School of Public Health. Available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/thegeocodingproject/

 
11

Krieger N. A century of census tracts: health and the body politic (1906 - 2006) J Urban Hlth (in press).

12

Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Coull BA, Cohen B, Ostrem M, Krieger N. Mapping and measuring social disparities in premature mortality: the impact of census tract poverty within and across Boston neighborhoods, 1999-2001. J Urban Health 2006 {Epub ahead of print; doi: 10.1007/s11524-006-9089-7]

13
Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Comparing Individual- and Area-based Socioeconomic Measures for the Surveillance of Health Disparities: A Multilevel Analysis of Massachusetts Births, 1989-1991. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 164:823-834
14

Subramanian SV, Chen JT, Rehkopf DH, Waterman PD, Krieger N. Response to Invited Commentary. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 164:841-844

15

Rehkopf DH, Haughton LT, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Subramanian SV, Krieger N. Monitoring Socioeconomic Disparities in Death: Comparing Individual-Level Education and Area-Based Socioeconomic Measures. Am J Public Health 2006; 96: 2135-2138 (with erratum in AJPH 2007; 97:1543)

16

Krieger N. Why Epidemiologists Cannot Afford to Ignore Poverty.[Editorial] Epidemiology 2007; 18:658-663.

17

Krieger N. Putting health inequities on the map: social epidemiology meets medical/health geography -- an ecosocial perspective. Geojournal 2009; 74:87-97

18

Krieger N, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Subramanian SV, Rehkopf DH. Monitoring socioeconomic determinants for healthcare disparities: tools from the Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project. In: Williams RA (eds). Eliminating Healthcare Disparities in America: Beyond the IOM Report. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2007; 259-306

Home Page
Glossary
back to top
Who We Are
Acknowledgments
Contact Us
This work was funded by the National Institutes of Health (1RO1HD36865-01) via the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development (NICHD) and the Office of Behavioral & Social Science Research (OBSSR).
Copyright © 2004 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College - The Public Health Disparities Geocoding Project.