Background: Provider payment system has a profound impact on health system performance. In 2016, a number of counties in rural Guizhou, China, implemented global budget (GB) for county hospitals with quality control measures. The aim of this study is to measure the impact of GB combined with pay-for-performance on the quality of care of inpatients in county-level hospitals in China.
Methods: Inpatient cases of four diseases, including pneumonia, chronic asthma, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, from 16 county-level hospitals in Guizhou province that implemented GB in 2016 were selected as the inter- vention group, and similar inpatient cases from 10 county-level hospitals that still implemented fee-for-services were used as the control group. Propensity matching score (PSM) was used for data matching to control for age factors, and difference-in-differences (DID) models were constructed using the matched samples to perform regression analy- sis on quality of care for the four diseases.
Results: After the implementation of GB, rate of sputum culture in patients with pneumonia, rate of aspirin at dis- charge, rate of discharge with β-blocker and rate of smoking cessation advice in patients with acute myocardial infarc- tion increased. Rate of oxygenation index assessment in patient with chronic asthma decreased 20.3%. There are no significant changes in other indicators of process quality.
Conclusions: The inclusion of pay-for-performance in the global budget payment system will help to reduce the quality risks associated with the reform of the payment system and improve the quality of care. Future reform should also consider the inclusion of the pay-for-performance mechanism.