Peer-reviewed Publications in Journals

      1. Wikler, D. “The Central Ethical Problem in Human Experimentation and Three Solutions.” Clinical Research, 26(6): 380-383, 1978.
      2. Wikler, D. “On Keeping the Dead Alive: An examination of the “Harvard Definition” of Death” (unpublished), January 1977.
      3. Wikler, D. “Persuasion and Coercion for Health: Ethical Issues in Government Efforts to Change Lifestyles.” The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly: Health and Society, 56(3):303-333, 1978.  Reprinted in:
        • A. Kindig and R.B. Sullivan, eds., Understanding Universal Programs: Issues and Options (Ann Arbor: 1992).
        • Dowie and P. Lefrere, eds., Risk and Chance (Milton Keynes [U.K.], 1980).
        • J. B. McKinlay, ed., Politics and Health Care (MIT Press, 1982).
        • J. B. McKinlay, ed., Law and Ethics in Health Care (MIT Press, 1982).
        • T. L. Beauchamp and L. Walters, eds., Contemporary Issues in Bioethics (Wadsworth, 1982).
        • R. Sartorius, ed., Paternalism (University of Minnesota Press, 1983).
        • S. Gorovitz, et al., eds., Moral Problems in Medicine (Prentice-Hall, 1983).
        • Nobuyuki Iida and Hisatake Kato, eds., Baio Esikusu no Kiso (The Basics of Bioethics: Theories of Bioethics in the West), Tokai University Press, 1988, (in Japanese).
    1. Wikler, D. “Paternalism and the Mildly Retarded.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 8(4):377-392, 1979.  Reprinted in:
      • R. Macklin, and W. Gaylin, eds., Mental Retardation and Sterilization: The Problems of Competency and Paternalism (Plenum, 1981).
      • R. Sartorius, ed., Paternalism (University of Minnesota Press, 1983).
  1. Wikler, D., Green, M., and Wikler, L. “Formal Limits of Behavior Modification.” The Behavior Therapist, 2(1):19-20, February, 1979.
  2. Fost, N., Chudwin, D., Wikler, D. “The Limited Moral Significance of Fetal Viability.” Hastings Center Report, 10(6):10-13, December 1980.
  3. Green, M. and Wikler, D. “Brain Death and Personal Identity.” Philosophy and Public Affairs, 9(2):105-133, Winter 1980.  Reprinted in:
    • Cohen, et al., eds., Medicine and Moral Philosophy (Princeton University Press, 1982).
    • Dworkin, et al., eds., Bioethics Reporter, 1983.
    • Nobuyuki Iida and Hisatake Kato, eds., Baio Esikusu no Kiso (The Basics of Bioethics: Theories of Bioethics in the West), Tokai University Press, 1988, (in Japanese).
    • Nobuyuki Iida and Hisatake Kato, eds., Baio Esikusu no Kiso (The Basics of Bioethics: Theories of Bioethics in the West), Tokai University Press, 1988, (in Japanese).
      1. Wikler, D. “Ethics and Rationing: ‘Whether,’ ‘How,’ and ‘How Much.'” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 40:398-403, April 1992. Reprinted in:
        • D. Arras and B. Steinbock, eds., Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine, Fourth Edition (Mayfield Publishing Company, 1995).
        • Mappes and J. Zembaty, eds., Biomedical Ethics, Fourth Edition (McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1995).
      2. Wikler, D. “What Has Bioethics to Offer Health Policy?” Milbank Quarterly, 69(2):233-249, 1991
      3. Wikler, D. “Brain-Related Criteria for the Beginning and End of Life.” Transplantation Proceedings, 22(3):989-990, June 1990.
      4. Wikler, D., “Efficacy, Fairness, and Point Systems in Organ Recipient Selection.” Transplantation Proceedings, 21(3):3437-3439, 1989.
      5. Wikler, D., “Institutional Agendas and Ethics Committees.” Hastings Center Report, 19(5):21-23, 1989.
      6. Wikler, D., and Weisbard, A. “Appropriate Confusion over Brain Death.” JAMA, 261(15):2246, April 1989.
      7. Wikler, D. “Patient Interests: Clinical Implications of Philosophical Distinctions.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 36:951-958, 1988.
      8. Wikler, D. “Not Dead, Not Dying? Ethical Categories and Persistent Vegetative State.” Hastings Center Report, 18(1):41-47, February/March 1988. Spanish translation in Jano Medicina Y Humanidades (Barcelona), 1989.     Reprinted in T.A. Mappes and J.S. Zembaty, eds., Biomedical Ethics, Third Edition (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991).
      9. Wikler, D. “Ought the Young Make Health Care Decisions for Their Aged Selves?” Journal of Medicine & Philosophy, 13(1):57-71, 1988.
      10. Wikler, D. “Reflections on Research on Mentally Disabled Human Subjects.” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 23(3):372-374, 1987.
      11. Wikler, D. “Who Should Be Blamed For Being Sick?” Health Education Quarterly, 14(1):11-25, Spring 1987.
      12. Wikler, D. Introduction, “Symposium on the Role of Philosophers in the Development of Public Policy.” Ethics, 97(4):775, July 1987.
      13. Wikler, D. Introduction, Medical Decision Making for the Demented and Dying. Milbank Quarterly, 64(Supplement 2):1-3, 1986.
      14. Culver, C., Wikler, D., et al. “Basic Curricular Goals in Medical Ethics.” The New England Journal of Medicine, 312(4):253-256, January 24, 1985.
      15. Wikler, D. “Conceptual Issues in the Definition of Death: A Guide for Public Policy.” Theoretical Medicine, 5:167-180, 1984.
      16. Eichelman, B., Wikler, D., Hartwig, A. “Ethics and Psychiatric Research: Problems and Justification.” American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(3):400-405, March, 1984.
      17. Wikler, D. “Ethicists, Critics, and Expertise.” Hastings Center Report, 12(3):12-13, June 1982.
      18. Siegler, M. and Wikler, D. “Brain Death and Live Birth.” JAMA, 248(9):1101-1102, September 3, 1982.
      19. Wikler, D. “Ethics as Theory and as Practice.” Aggressive Behavior, 7:377-381, 1981.
      20. Wikler, D. “Ethical Considerations in Randomized Clinical Trials.” Seminars in Oncology, 8(4):437-441, December 1981.
      21. Wikler, D. “Theoretical and Policy Debates over the Status of Short Stature as a Disease,” in N. Fost, D. Allen & R. Blizzard, eds., Growth, Genetics & Hormones, 8(Supplement 1):36-38, May 1992.
      22. Wikler, D., and Barondess, J. “Bioethics and Anti-Bioethics in Light of Nazi Medicine: What Must We Remember?” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 3(1):39-55, 1993.
      23. Wikler, D. “Brain Death: A Durable Consensus?” Bioethics, 7(2/3):239-246, 1993. Reprinted in (Italian) as La morte cerebrale: un consenso duraturo?, Bioetica 2, 226-235, 1993
      24. Wikler, D. “Federal Bioethics: Methodology, Expertise, and Evaluation.” Politics and the Life Sciences, February, 1994, pp. 100-101
      25. Wikler, D. “Bioethics Commissions Abroad.” HEC Forum, 6(4):290-304, 1994.
      26. Wikler, D. “Who Defines Death? In C. Machado, ed., The Definition of Death: Medical, Legal and Philosophical Perspectives.”  Elsevier Science B.V., 1995.
      27. Wikler, D. “Policy Issues in Donor Insemination.” Stanford Law & Policy Review, 6(2):47-56, 1995.
      28. Wikler, D. “International Bioethics and Ethical Relativism.” Medicine and Philosophy  (Beijing) 17(12), 1996, pp.663-667 (in Chinese).
      29. Wikler, D. “Bioethics and Social Responsibility.” Bioethics, 11(3&4):185-192).
      30. Wikler, D. “Is Equity in Health Different from Equity in General?” World Health Forum: An International Journal of Health Development, World Health Organization, Geneva, 18(2):157-160.
      31. Marchand, S., Wikler, D., and Landesman, B., “Class, Health, and Justice.” Milbank Quarterly 76(3), 1998, pp. 449-468. Chinese translation, Medicine and Philosophy (Dalian, PRC), 22(4), Apr 2001, pp. 22-27.
      32. Wikler, D. “Eugenic Values.” Science in Context 11 (3-4), 1998, pp. 455-470.
      33. Wikler, D. “Can We Learn From Eugenics?” Journal of Medical Ethics, 1999 . Reprinted in Alison K Thompson and Ruth Chadwick, eds,. Genetic Information: Acquisition, Access, and Control. New York: Springer Verlag, 1999. Spanish translation by Florencia. Luna, Argentina 2002; and in Justin Oakley, ed., Bioethics, The International Library of Essays in Public and Professional Ethics. London: Ashgate, 2009.
      34. Harkness, Jon, Lederer, Susan E., and Wikler, D. “Laying Ethical foundations for Clinical Research “Bulletin of the World Health Organization Volume 79, Number 4, 2001, 365-366.
      35. Raja, Asad, and Wikler, D. “Developing Bioethics in Developing Countries” Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 19 (1), March 2001, pp. 4-5.
      36. Wikler, D. “Social and Personal Responsibility for Health” Ethics and International Affairs, 16(2), 2002.
      37. Wikler, D. “Why Ration When There is Not Enough Money?” in Cost-Effectiveness and Resource Allocation 1:5 (26 February 2003). Reprinted in Bulletin von Medicus Mundi Schweiz 91, December 2003.
      38. Milstien, J., Cash, R., Wecker, J., Wikler, D. “Development of Priority Vaccines for Disease-Endemic Countries: Risk and Benefit” Health Affairs 24 718-728, 2005.
      39. Sofaer, N., Jafarey, A., Zhang, X., Lei, R., and Wikler, D. “Compensation and coercion: why disputes over paying subjects in health research seem intractable and how they might be resolved.” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (12, suppl.1), 2006.
      40. Brock, D., Wikler, D. Ethical Challenges In Long-Term Funding For HIV/AIDS Health Affairs 28(6), 2009, 1666-1677.
      41. Schmidt, H., Voigt, K., Wikler, D. Carrots, Sticks, and Health Care Reform — Problems with Wellness Incentives NEJM, 14, 2010 362(2):e3.
      42. Murray, C., Ezzati, M., Flaxman, A., Lim, S., Lozano, R., Michaud, C., Naghavi, M., Salomon, J., Shibuya, K., Vos, T., Wikler, D., Lopez, A. (2012). “GBD 2010: design, definitions, and metrics”. The Lancet, Volume 380, Issue 9859, Pages 2055 – 2058, 15 December 2012
      43. Murray, C., Ezzati, M., Flaxman, A., Lim, S., Lozano, R., Michaud, C., Naghavi, M. Salomon, J., Shibuya, K., Vos, T., Wikler, D., Lopez, A. (2012). Comprehensive Systematic Analysis of Global Epidemiology: Definitions, Methods, Simplification of DALYs, and Comparative Results from the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study. The Lancet  Volume 380, Issue 9859, supplement  (pages 1-131) to Murray, C. et al “GBD 2010”.
      44. Wikler, D., Eyal, N., “Nudges and Noodges: The Ethics of Health Promotion—New York Style” Public Health Ethics 6(3), 2013, 233-234
      45. Bärnighausen, T., Eyal, N., Wikler, D. (2014) HIV treatment-as-prevention research at a crossroads.  PLoS Med 11(6): e1001654; doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001654. eCollection 2014 Jun. PMID:24892694.
      46. Ottersen, T., Norheim, O.F.; World Health Organization Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage.  Making fair choices on the path to universal health coverage.  Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Jun 1;92(6):389. doi:10.2471/BLT.14.139139. PMID:24940009.
      47. Sadovnikoff, N., Wikler, D.  Brain dead patients are still whole organisms.  Am J Bioeth. 2014;14(8):39-40. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2014.925164. PMID:25046298.
      48. Norheim, O.F., Baltussen, R.., Johri, M., Chisholm, D., Nord, E., Brock, D., Carlsson, P., Cookson, R., Daniels, N., Danis, M., Fleurbaey, M., Johansson, K.A., Kapiriri, L., Littlejohns, P., Mbeeli, T., Rao, K.D., Edejer, T.T., Wikler, D.  Guidance on priority setting in health care (GPS-Health): the inclusion of equity criteria not captured by cost-effectiveness analysis.  Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2014 Aug 29;12:18. doi: 10.1186/1478-7547-12-18. eCollection 2014.  PMID:25246855.
      49. Bärnighausen, T., Eyal, N., Wikler, D. (2015) HIV Treatment-As-Prevention Research: Authors’ Reply. PLoS Med 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001799.
      50. Bärnighausen, T., Eyal, N., Wikler, D.  HIV treatment-as-prevention research: authors’ reply.  PLoS Med. 2015 Mar 10;12(3):e1001799. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001799. eCollection 2015 Mar.  PMID:25756214.

Books and Chapters in Books and monographs:

                  1. Wikler, D. “Ethical Issues in Governmental Efforts to Promote Health.” Occasional Papers of the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, pp. 1-37, June 1978.
                  2. Mayo, D. and Wikler, D. “Euthanasia and the Transition from Life to Death,” in W. Robison and M. Pritchard, eds., Medical Responsibility: Paternalism, Informed Consent and Euthanasia, pp. 153-169 (Humana, 1979). Reprinted in T. Mappes & J. Zembaty, eds., Biomedical Ethics, Second Edition (McGraw-Hill, 1986).
                  3. Howell, T., Diamond, R., Wikler, D. “Is There a Case for Voluntary Commitment?” In T. Beauchamp and L. Walters, eds., Contemporary Issues in Bioethics, Second Edition, pp. 163-167 (Belmont, California: Wadsworth, 1982).
                  4. Wikler, D. “Philosophical Perspectives on Access to Health Care,” In The President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine, Securing Access to Health Care, Appendix II, pp. 109-151 (Washington, 1983).
                  5. Wikler, D. “Concepts of Personhood: Philosophical Perspectives,” In M. Shaw and E. Doudera, eds., Defining Human Life: Medical, Legal, & Ethical Implications, pp. 12-23 (Ann Arbor: AUPHA Press, 1983).
                  6. Wikler, D. “Abortion, Privacy, and Personhood: From Roe v. Wade to the Human Life Statute,” In J. Garfield and P. Hennessey, eds., Abortion: Moral and Legal Perspectives (Amherst: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1984).
                  7. Diamond, R., Wikler, D. “Ethical Problems in Community Treatment of the Chronically Mentally Ill,” In L. Stein and M.A. Test, eds., New Directions in Mental Health (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, June 1985).
                  8. Wikler, D. “Holistic Medicine: Concepts of Personal Responsibility for Health,” In D. Stalker and C. Glymour, eds., Examining Holistic Medicine (Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Press, 1985).
                  9. Wikler, D. Commentary on Margaret Battin, “Age Rationing and the Just Distribution of Health Care: Is There a Duty to die?” In Timothy Smeeding, et al., eds., Should Medical Care Be Rationed by Age, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1987, pp. 95-98
                  10. Wikler, D. “Personal Responsibility for Illness,” in T. Regan and D. VanDeVeer, eds., Health Care Ethics (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1987).
                  11. Wikler, D. “The Virtuous Hospital: Do Nonprofit Institutions Have a Distinctive Moral Mission?” In B. Vladeck, et al., eds., In Sickness and In Health: The Mission of Volunteer Health Care Institutions (McGraw Hill, 1988).
                  12. Wikler, D. “Ethical and Ideological Assumptions of Organ Substitution Policy,” in D. Mathieu & A. Buchanan, eds., Organ Substitution Technology (Westview Press, 1988).
                  13. Wikler, D., Brock, D., Caplan, A., DeGeorge, R., Gert, B., and Veatch, R., Contemporary Bioethics in the United States (monograph), In Russian, (Moscow: Znanye, 1990).
                  14. Wikler, D. and Palmer, E. “Neo-eugenics and Disability Rights in Philosophical Perspective,” In N. Fujiki and D. Macer, eds., Human Genome Research and Society, Proceedings of the Second International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, March, 20-21, 1992 (Eubios Ethics Institute, in English and Japanese).
                  15. Wikler, D. “Ethical Issues in National Health Insurance,” In R. Huefner and P. Battin, eds., Changing to National Health Care (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1992).
                  16. Wikler, D. “Privatization and Human Rights in Health Care: Notes on the American Experience,” In K. and P. Mahoney, eds., Human Rights in the 21st Century: A Global Challenge (The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992).
                  17. Wikler, D. “‘Filosofie is geen mysterie:’ Een filosofisch perspectief op de ‘grassroots’-benadering in de allocatie van gezondheidszorg.” H.A.M.J. ten Have and R.H.J. ter Meulen, eds., Samen kiezen in de zorg: Het voorbeeld Oregon (Baarn, 1993) (in Dutch)
                  18. Etzioni, A., Cassel, C., Wikler, D., et al., Core Values in Health-Care Reform: A Communitarian Approach, position paper prepared for The Communitarian Network, (Washington, D.C., 1993).
                  19. Wikler, D. and Wikler, N. “Issues and Responses: Artificial Insemination,” In Treatment of Infertility: Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Volume 9 of the Research Studies by the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies, (Ottawa, Canada, 1993).
                  20. Wikler, D. “The Conceptual Framework of Donor Insemination,” In Treatment of Infertility: Assisted Reproductive Technologies, Volume 9 of the Research Studies by the Royal Commission on New Reproductive Technologies, (Ottawa, Canada, 1993).
                  21. Wikler, D. “Predictive Testing in Genetics and Psychiatry: Ethical Issues in the Use of Advance Directives,” In N. Fujiki and D.R.J. Macer, eds., Intractable Neurological Disorders, Human Genome Research & Society, Proceedings of the Third International Bioethics Seminar in Fukui, Japan, November 19-21, 1993, pp. 157-160 (New Zealand and Japan: Eubios Ethics Institute, 1994, in English and Japanese).
                  22. Wikler, D. “Bioethics as a Global Enterprise,” In Z. Bankowski and J.H. Bryant, eds., Poverty, Vulnerability, and the Value of Human Life: A Global Agenda for Bioethics, pp. 209-214 (Geneva: CIOMS, 1995).
                  23. Wikler, D. and Beauchamp, D., “Health Promotion and Health Education,” and “Lifestyles and Public Health.” In W. Reich, ed., Encyclopedia of Bioethics (New York: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1995).
                  24. Wikler, D. “Bioethics, Human Rights, and the Renewal of Health for All: An Overview,” In Z. Bankowski, J.H. Bryant, and J. Gallagher, eds., Ethics, Equity and The Renewal of WHO’s Health-For-All Strategy, pp. 21-30 and 165-167 (Geneva: CIOMS, 1997).
                  25. Wikler, D. and Marchand, S. “Macroallocation of Health Care Resources.” In Singer, P., and Kuhse, H., Companion to Bioethics. Oxford: Blackwell’s, 1998.
                  26. Wikler, D. ”Medical Ethics,” In Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1998.
                  27. Wikler, D. “An Individual-Essentialist Definition of Death” (published in Spanish) Bioethica  Buenos Aires
                  28. Buchanan, A., Brock, D., Daniels, N., Wikler, D. From Chance to Choice: Genes and Justice, Cambridge University Press 2000 (paper edition 2001) [also in Chinese, and Spanish, and German translations]
                  29. Marchand, S., and Wikler, D. “Equality and the Distribution of Health” In Julia Tao Lai Po-wah, ed.,  Cross-Cultural Perspectives on the (Im)Possibility of Global Bioethics. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, Inc., 2002
                  30. Wikler, D. “Polls and Focus Groups in Bioethics: the Case of Resource Ethics” In Interfaces between bioethics and the empirical social sciences, edited by F. Lolas and L. Agar, Bioethics Program PAHO, Santiago, 2002, pp. 91-98.
                  31. Hirschfeld, M., Wikler, D. et al, eds. (and co-authors of introductory essay) Ethical Issues in Long-Term Care: What Does Justice Require? Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003
                  32. Wikler, D. “Personal and Social Responsibility for Health.” In Sudhir Anand, Fabienne Peter, and Amartya Sen, eds., Public Health, Ethics, and Equity. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005, 107-131
                  33. Brock, D. and Wikler, D.., “Ethical Issues in Resource Allocation and New Product Development.” In Dean Jamison et al, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries , second edition, Oxford UP 2006
                  34. Wikler, D., and Brock, D., Population-Level Bioethics: Mapping a New Agenda.” In Angus Dawson and Marcel Verweij, Eds., Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health, Oxford UP, 2009.
                  35. Wikler, D., Brock, D., Marchand, S., Tan Torres, T. “Quantitative Methods for Priority-Setting: Ethical Issues.” In Ashcroft RE Dawson A Draper H McMillan J, Principles of Health Care Ethics. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2007, pp. 563-568.
                  36. Wikler, D. and Cash, R. “Ethical Issues in Global Public Health” In Robert Beaglehole and Ruth Bonita, eds. Global Public Health: A New Era, Second Edition, Oxford University Press, 2009
                  37. Wikler, D.  A crisis in medical professionalism: time for Flexner II. In Denis Arnold, ed., Ethics and the Business of Biomedicine, Cambridge University Press, 2009
                  38. Wikler, D., Marchand, S., Society’s Allocation of Resources for Health. In Kuhse H and Singer P, A Companion to Bioethics. John Wiley and Sons, 2009
                  39. Cash, R., Wikler, D.,  Saxena, A., Capron, A. Casebook on Ethical Issues in International Health Research Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010
                  40. Wikler, D. “Cognitive Disability, Paternalism, and the Global Burden of Disease.” In Kittay, E. and Carlson, L. Cognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
                  41. Eyal, N., Norheim, O., Hurst, S., Wikler, D., eds. (2013). Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2013.
                  42. Eyal, N., Hurst, S., Marchand, S., Norheim, O., Wikler, D. “What’s Wrong with Health Inequalities?”, In Eyal, N., Norheim, O., Hurst, S., Wikler, D., eds. (2013). Inequalities in Health: Concepts, Measures, and Ethics. Oxford University Press, 2013.


  • 2002-present  Editorial Board, Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
  • 1999-present  Editorial Board, American Journal of Bioethics
  • 1999-2001      Editorial Board, Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1992-present  Editorial Board, Bioteca (Milan)
  • 1991-present  Editorial Board, The Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
  • 1991-2002      Editorial Board, The Future of Children
  • 1986                 Guest Editor, The Milbank Quarterly, Supplement, “Medical Decision Making for the Demented and Dying”
  • 1986-present  Editorial Board, Bioethics (London)
  • 1978-1982       Editorial Board, Ethics, University of Chicago Press


  • Series editor, Cambridge Studies in Philosophy and Health Policy (Cambridge University Press) 1983-1995
  • Series co-editor (with N. Eyal), Population-level Bioethics (Oxford University Press), 2013-