Slavery & Public Health: Suggested Readings – Nancy Krieger

Krieger N. The long reach of Jim Crow: embodying history & the people’s health — the stories bodies tell. Invited presentation for “Slavery & Public Health: Past, Present, and Future” – A Symposium at HSPH. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, May 4, 2017. (ver: April 24, 2017)

Click here for PDF

Ecosocial theory, embodied histories, populations, & health inequities

Krieger N. Epidemiology and the People’s Health: Theory and Context. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. Krieger N. Epidemiology and the web of causation: has anyone seen the spider? Soc Sci Med 1994; 39:887-903.

Krieger N. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol 2001; 30:667-677.

Krieger N. Got theory? – on the 21st c CE rise of explicit use of epidemiologic theories of disease distribution: a review and ecosocial analysis. Current Epidemiol Reports 2014;1(1):45-56.

Krieger N. A glossary for social epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2001; 55:693-700.

Krieger N. Embodiment: a conceptual glossary for epidemiology. J Epidemiol Community Health 2005; 59:350-355.

Krieger N. W ho and what are `populations?’ – historical debates, current controversies, and implications for understanding “population health” and rectifying health inequities. Milbank Quarterly 2012; 90:634-681.

Krieger N. Health equity & the fallacy of treating causes of population health as if they sum to 100%. Am J Public Health 2017; 17:541-549.

Racism, Jim Crow & health


Bailey ZD, Krieger N, Agénor M, Graves J, Linos N, Bassett M. Structural racism and health inequities: evidence and interventions. Lancet

2017; 389:1453-1463.

Krieger N. Living and dying at the crossroads: racism, embodiment, and why theory is essential for a public health of consequence. Am J Public Health 2016; 106:832-833

Krieger N. Discrimination and health inequities. In: Berkman LF, Kawachi I, Glymour M (eds). Social Epidemiology. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014; 63-125.

Krieger N. Methods for the scientific study of discrimination and health: from societal injustice to embodied inequality – an ecosocial approach. Am J Public Health 2012; 102:936-945.

Krieger N. Does racism harm health? did child abuse exist before 1962?—on explicit questions, critical science, and current controversies: an ecosocial perspective. Am J Public Health 2003; 93:194-199.

Krieger N, Rowley DL, Herman AA, Avery B, Phillips MT. Racism, sexism, and social class: implications for studies of health, disease, and well-being. Am J Prev Med 1993; 9 (Suppl):82-122.

Krieger N. Shades of difference: theoretical underpinnings of the medical controversy on black-white differences, 1830-1870. Int J Health Services 1987; 17:258-279.

Empirical: Jim Crow

Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull B, Waterman PD, Beckfield J. The unique impact of abolition of Jim Crow laws on reducing health inequities in infant death rates and implications for choice of comparison groups in analyzing societal determinants of health. Am J Public Health 2013; 103:2234-2244.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Coull BA, Beckfield J, Kiang MV, Waterman PD. Jim Crow and age-period-cohort analysis of premature mortality among the US black and white population, 1960-2009. Epidemiology 2014; 25:494-504.

Krieger N, Jahn JL, Waterman PD. Jim Crow and estrogen-receptor negative breast cancer: US-born black & white non-Hispanic women, 1992-2012. Cancer Causes Control 2017; 28:49-59.

Haldanes & health inequities

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD, Kosheleva A, Beckfield S. History, haldanes, & health inequities: exploring phenotypic changes in body size by generation and income level among the US-born white and black non-Hispanic populations, 1959-1962 to 2005-2008. Int J Epidemiol 2013; 42: 281-295.

Krieger N, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J, Kiang MV. 50 year trends in US socioeconomic inequalities in health: US- born black and white Americans, 1959-2008. Int J Epidemiol 2014; 43:1294-1313.

Krieger N, Kiang MV, Kosheleva A, Waterman PD, Chen JT, Beckfield J. Age at menarche: 50-year socioeconomic trends among US-born black and white women. Am J Public Health 2015; 105:388-397.

More on the social epidemiology of breast cancer & the breast cancer estrogen receptor

Krieger N. Social class and the black/white crossover in age-specific incidence of breast cancer: a study linking census-derived data to population-based registry records. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131:804-814.

Krieger N, Van Den Eeden SK, Zava D, Okamoto A. Race/ethnicity, social class, and prevalence of breast cancer molecular prognostic biomarkers: a study of white, black, and Asian women in the San Francisco Bay Area. Ethnicity & Disease 1997; 7:137-149.

Krieger N. Breast cancer: a disease of affluence, poverty, or both?—the case of African American women. Am J Public Health 2002; 92:611-613.

Krieger N, Chen JT, Waterman PD. Temporal trends in the black/white breast cancer case ratio for estrogen receptor status: disparities are historically contingent, not innate. Cancer Causes Control 2011; 22:511-514.

Krieger N. History, biology, and health inequities: emergent embodied phenotypes & the illustrative case of the breast cancer estrogen receptor. Am J Public Health 2013; 103:22-27.