Citation: Nakanishi, N. (1999). ‘Ikigai’ in older Japanese people. Age Ageing, 28(3), 323-324.

PMID or DOI: PMID: 10475874

Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Ikigai

Sub-constructs measured: N/A

Available subscales: N/A

Description:  The Ikigai term refers to purpose in life, or the sense of “life worth living”, among Japanese adults.

Population: Japanese adults

Number of items: 1

Example of statement/item: “Do you have ikigai in life?”

Response options: Various scoring exist across studies. One example is using a 3-point Likert scale; 0 “Yes”, 1 “Uncertain” and 2 “No”.

Total score: From the example above: Ranges from 0 to 2. Higher score indicates lower levels of ikigai.

Examples of studies:

1. Tanno, K. and K. Sakata, Psychological factors and mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer (JACC). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2007. 8 Suppl: p. 113-22.
2. Wakai, K., et al., Psychological attitudes and risk of breast cancer in Japan: a prospective study. Cancer Causes Control, 2007. 18(3): p. 259-67.
3. Sone, T., et al., Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and mortality in Japan: Ohsaki Study. Psychosom Med, 2008. 70(6): p. 709-15.

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