Citation: Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of personality and social psychology, 69(4), 719.
PMID or DOI: PMID: 7473027
Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Psychological well-being
Sub-constructs measured: N/A
Available subscales: autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relations with others, purpose in life, self-acceptance
Description: The Scales of Psychological Well-being is a theoretically grounded, multidimensional model of well-being that was designed to include six distinct components of positive psychological functioning including positive self-regard (self-acceptance), mastery of the surrounding environment, quality relations with others, continued growth and development, purposeful living, and the capacity for self-determination (autonomy).
Number of items: 18
Example statement/item: “Some people wander aimlessly through life, but I am not one of them.”
Response options: 6-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 6, 1,“Completely disagree” and 6,“Completely agree”.
Total score: Items within each subscale are summed, yielding a range from 18 to 108. Higher scores indicate greater physiological well-being for each subscale.
Examples of studies that link to health outcomes:
1. Boyle, P.A., et al., Effect of a purpose in life on risk of incident Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older persons. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2010. 67(3): p. 304-10.
2. Kim, E.S., et al., Purpose in life and reduced incidence of stroke in older adults: ‘The Health and Retirement Study’. J Psychosom Res, 2013. 74(5): p. 427-32.
3. Boylan, J.M. and C.D. Ryff, Psychological well-being and metabolic syndrome: Findings from the midlife in the United States national sample. Psychosom Med, 2015. 77(5): p. 548-58.