Citation: Crumbaugh, J. C. (1977). The seeking of noetic goals test (SONG): A complementary scale to the purpose in life test (PIL). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(3), 900-907.
PMID or DOI: PMID: 893732
Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Purpose in life
Sub-constructs measured: N/A
Available subscales: N/A
Description: SONG seeks to evaluate the perceived need to search for and the strength of motivation to find purpose in life.
Example of statement/item: “I think about the ultimate meaning of life.”
Response options: 7-point Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7, 1,“Never” and 7“Constantly”.
Total score: Items are summed, yielding a range from 20 to 140. Higher scores indicate greater levels of purpose in life.
Examples of studies:
1. Roos, C.R., et al., Examining temptation to drink from an existential perspective: Associations among temptation, purpose in life, and drinking outcomes. Psychol Addict Behav, 2015. 29(3): p. 716-24.