Citations: 1. Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
2. Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Soc Sci Med, 36(6), 725-733.
PMID or DOI: PMID: 8480217
Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Meaning in life
Sub-constructs measured: N/A
Available subscales: N/A
Description: The Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) assesses how people view life and identifies how they use their resistance resources to maintain and develop their health.
Number of items: 29
Example of statement/item: “Until now your life has had….”
Response options: 7-point Likert scale with response options relevant to each item (e.g., with the example above: 1, “No clear goal or purpose at all” to 7, “Very clear goals and purpose”).
Total score: Items are summed, yielding a range from 7 to 203. Higher scores indicate greater levels of sense of coherence.
Other forms available (and related citation):
A) Short form (13-item) of the Orientation to Life Questionnaire (OLQ) (Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the Mystery of Health: How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco; Antonovsky, A. (1993). The structure and properties of the Sense of Coherence Scale. Soc Sci Med, 36(6), 725-733)
Examples of studies:
1. Poppius, E., Tenkanen, L., Kalimo, R., & Heinsalmi, P. (1999). The sense of coherence, occupation and the risk of coronary heart disease in the Helsinki Heart Study. Soc Sci Med, 49(1), 109-120.
2. Kivimaki, M., Feldt, T., Vahtera, J., & Nurmi, J. E. (2000). Sense of coherence and health: Evidence from two cross-lagged longitudinal samples. Soc Sci Med, 50(4), 583-597.3. Surtees, P., Wainwright, N., Luben, R., Khaw, 3. K. T., & Day, N. (2003). Sense of coherence and mortality in men and women in the EPIC-Norfolk United Kingdom prospective cohort study. Am J Epidemiol, 158(12), 1202-1209.
4. Kuuppelomaki, M., & Utriainen, P. (2003). A 3 year follow-up study of health care students’ sense of coherence and related smoking, drinking and physical exercise factors. Int J Nurs Stud, 40(4), 383-388.