- Drinking up to six cups a day of coffee is not associated with increased risk of death from any cause, or death from cancer or cardiovascular disease.
- Some people may still want to consider avoiding coffee or switching to decaf, especially women who are pregnant, or people who have a hard time controlling their blood pressure or blood sugar.
- It’s best to brew coffee with a paper filter, to remove a substance that causes increases in LDL cholesterol.
- Coffee may have potential health benefits, but more research needs to be done.
- Read more about coffee and health
1. The latest Harvard study on coffee and premature mortality seems to offer good news for coffee drinkers. What did the research find?
We looked at the relationship between coffee consumption and overall mortality in the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study, which together included about 130,000 study volunteers. (1) At the start of the study, these healthy men and women were in their 40s and 50s. We followed them for 18 to 24 years, to see who died during that period, and to track their diet and lifestyle habits, including coffee consumption. We did not find any relationship between coffee consumption and increased risk of death from any cause, death from cancer, or death from cardiovascular disease. Even people who drank up to six cups of coffee per day were at no higher risk of death. Consistent with our findings, recent meta-analyses that combined data from all published prospective studies on coffee and risk of cardiovascular diseases (2) or premature mortality (3) did not show any increase in risk for high coffee consumption as compared with non-consumption. These findings fit into the research picture that has been emerging over the past few years: For the general population, the evidence suggests that coffee drinking doesn’t have any serious detrimental health effects.
2. So for coffee drinkers, no news is good news? Why is this finding so important?
It’s an important message because people have seen coffee drinking as an unhealthy habit, along the lines of smoking and excessive drinking, and they may make a lot of effort to reduce their coffee consumption or quit drinking it altogether, even if they really enjoy it. Our findings suggest that if you want to improve your health, it’s better to focus on other lifestyle factors, such as increasing your physical activity, quitting smoking, or eating more fruit, vegetables, nuts and whole grains.
3. Is there an upper limit for the amount of coffee that is healthy to drink each day?
If you’re drinking so much coffee that you get tremors, have sleeping problems, or feel stressed and uncomfortable, than obviously you’re drinking too much coffee. But in terms of effects on mortality or risk of chronic diseases, we don’t see any negative effects of consuming up to six cups of coffee a day. Keep in mind that our study and in most studies of coffee, a “cup” of coffee is an 8-ounce cup with 100 mg of caffeine, not the 16 ounces you would get in a grande coffee at a Starbucks, which has about 330 mg of caffeine.
Also keep in mind that the research is typically based on coffee that’s black or with a little milk or sugar, but not with the kind of high-calorie coffeehouse beverages that have become popular over the past few years. A 24-ounce mocha Frappachino at Starbucks with whipped cream has almost 500 calories—that’s 25 percent of the daily calorie intake for someone who requires 2,000 calories a day. People may not realize that having a beverage like that adds so much to their energy intake, and they may not compensate adequately by eating less over the course of the day. This could lead to weight gain over time, which could in turn increase the risk of type 2 diabetes, and that’s a major concern.
4. Is there any research that suggests coffee may have some beneficial health effects?
Yes, results of research over the past decade suggest that coffee consumption may protect against type 2 diabetes (4), Parkinson’s disease (5), and liver cancer (6). For example, the link between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes has been evaluated in more than 25 cohort studies from America, Europe, and Asia and results from nearly all of these studies suggest that coffee may lower diabetes risk.(4) Interestingly, similar results were observed for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee suggesting that compounds other than caffeine may lower risk of diabetes. In addition, our recent meta-analysis on coffee consumption and cardiovascular diseases suggested that moderate coffee consumption (3-5 small cups per day) is linked to a slightly lower risk of cardiovascular diseases.(2) This is an active area of research right now, and it’s not at the stage where we would say, ”Start drinking coffee to increase your health even if you don’t like it.” But I think the evidence is good that for people in general—outside of a few populations, such as pregnant women, or people who have trouble controlling their blood pressure or blood sugar—coffee is one of the good, healthy beverage choices.
5. Why does it seem like scientists keep flip-flopping on whether coffee is bad for you or good for you?
Often people think of coffee just as a vehicle for caffeine. But it’s actually a very complex beverage with hundreds of different compounds in it. Since coffee contains so many different compounds, drinking coffee can lead to diverse health outcomes. It can be good for some things and bad for some things, and that’s not necessarily flip-flopping or inconsistent. That’s why we do studies on very specific health effects—for example, studies of how coffee affects the risk of diabetes—but we also conduct studies looking at coffee consumption and mortality over a long period of time, which better reflects the overall health effect.
Coffee is also a bit more complex to study than some other food items. Drinking coffee often goes along with cigarette smoking, and with a lifestyle that’s not very health conscious. For example, people who drink lots of coffee tend to exercise less and have a less healthful diet. So in the early studies on coffee and health, it was difficult to separate the effects of coffee from the effects of smoking or other lifestyle choices.
Over the several decades that coffee has been studied, there have been some reports that coffee may increase the risk of certain cancers or the risk of heart disease. But in better conducted studies—larger studies that have a lot of information about all other lifestyle factors and make a real effort to control for these lifestyle factors—we do not find many of these health effects that people were concerned about.
6. What is the latest research on the risks of coffee or caffeine during pregnancy?
For pregnant women, there has been quite a bit of controversy over whether intake of coffee or caffeine has detrimental effects on the fetus. The jury is still out, but the best currently available evidence does suggest that caffeine intake during pregnancy can reduce fetal growth and may even increase risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (7-8). It is known that caffeine crosses the placenta and reaches the fetus, and that the fetus is very sensitive to caffeine; it metabolizes it very slowly. So for pregnant women it seems prudent to abstain from caffeinated coffee or reduce their caffeine intake to a low level, for example one small cup a day.
7. Should people with high blood pressure consider reducing their coffee or caffeine intake? What about people with diabetes?
We know that if people are not used to using any caffeine, and they start to use caffeine, their blood pressure goes up substantially. Within a week of caffeine consumption, however, we see that the effect is less pronounced—habituation occurs and there is less of an increase in blood pressure. After several weeks of continued caffeine consumption, however, a small increase in blood pressure remains (9). In studies that look at the incidence of hypertension in the general population, drinking caffeinated coffee is not associated with a substantial increase in risk.(10) But if people have hypertension, and are having a hard time controlling their hypertension, they could try switching from caffeinated coffee to decaffeinated coffee, to see if it has a beneficial effect.
With diabetes, it’s a bit of a paradox. Studies around the world consistently show that high consumption of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee is associated with low risk of type 2 diabetes (4). But if you look at acute studies that just give people caffeine or caffeinated coffee, and then have them eat something high in sugar, their sensitivity to insulin drops and their blood glucose levels are higher than expected.(11) There isn’t any long-term data on coffee consumption and glucose control. But if people have diabetes and have trouble controlling their blood glucose, it may be beneficial for them to try reducing their coffee consumption or switching from caffeinated to decaffeinated coffee.
8. How do you explain the paradoxical findings on coffee and caffeine consumption and diabetes?
It’s possible that there are simply different effects for short-term and long-term intake of coffee and caffeine. And, as I mentioned before, it’s becoming increasingly clear that coffee is much more than caffeine, and the health effects that you see for caffeinated coffee are often different than what you would expect based on its caffeine content.
For example, if you look at exercise performance, it seems that caffeine can be somewhat beneficial, but caffeinated coffee is not. Or if you look at blood pressure and compare the effects of caffeinated coffee to the effects of caffeine, you’ll find that caffeinated coffee causes blood pressure increases that are substantially weaker than what one would expect for the amount of caffeine it contains (9). The same is true for the relationship between coffee, caffeine, and blood glucose after a meal. It’s possible that there are compounds in coffee that may counteract the effect of caffeine, but more research needs to be done.
9. Is drinking coffee made with a paper filter healthier than drinking boiled coffee or other types of coffee?
Coffee contains a substance called cafestol that is a potent stimulator of LDL-cholesterol levels (12). Cafestol is found in the oily fraction of coffee, and when you brew coffee with a paper filter, the cafestol gets left behind in the filter. Other methods of coffee preparation, such as the boiled coffee common in Scandinavian countries, French press coffee, or Turkish coffee, are much higher in cafestol. So for people who have high cholesterol levels or who want to prevent having high cholesterol levels, it is better to choose paper filtered coffee or instant coffee, since they have much lower levels of cafestol than boiled or French press coffee. Espresso is somewhere in the middle; it has less cafestol than boiled or French press coffee, but more than paper filtered coffee.
10. Do tea and coffee have similar beneficial effects?
Tea is also a prudent low-calorie beverage choice. The results from several studies suggest that tea consumption is also linked to a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, but overall the results for tea have been less consistent than for coffee.(13) Consumption of green tea may have other health benefits such as lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol concentrations.(14)
2. Crippa A, Discacciati A, Larsson SC, Wolk A, Orsini N. Coffee consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:763-75.
3. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Chen M, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2014;37:569-86.
4. Ding M, Bhupathiraju SN, Satija A, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Long-term coffee consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Circulation. 2014;129:643-59.
7. Chen LW, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, Chong M, Pan A, van Dam RM. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. BMC Med. 2014;12:174.
8. Greenwood DC, Thatcher NJ, Ye J, Garrard L, Keogh G, King LG, Cade JE. Caffeine intake during pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. Eur J Epidemiol. 2014;29:725-34.
9. Noordzij M, Uiterwaal CS, Arends LR, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE, Geleijnse JM. Blood pressure response to chronic intake of coffee and caffeine: a meta-analysis ofr andomized controlled trials. J Hypertens. 2005;23:921-8.
14.Onakpoya I, Spencer E, Heneghan C, Thompson M. The effect of green tea on blood pressure and lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014;24:823-36.