Till Bärnighausen

Associate Professor of Global Health

665 Huntington Avenue
Building 1, Room 1102
Boston, Massachusetts 02115


Till Bärnighausen is Associate Professor at the Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. He also serves as Program Director for Health Systems and Impact at the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies in South Africa, one of the Trust’s four Major Overseas Programmes. He is also a faculty affiliate at the Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.

Till works on health care access, transformation of health services, and the causal impacts of HIV treatment and other global health priority interventions on population health, economic, social and behavioral outcomes.

Till and his team have established the population impact of HIV treatment – delivered under the real-life conditions of a public-sector health system in rural Southern Africa – on mortality and life expectancy, employment an educational attainment, and health seeking and sexual behavior. They have also shown that in a rural Southern African community with high HIV prevalence and incidence neither sexual partner concurrency nor large age gaps between young girls and their male partners are important drivers of the HIV epidemic. Finally, Till has introduced several methods innovations for applied, population-based HIV research: new approaches to estimate HIV incidence using cross-sectional data on recent HIV infection; Heckman selection models to remove selection bias from HIV prevalence estimates; regression discontinuity for causal inference in clinical an population-based cohorts; and novel approaches to use geographical information system data to determine distance and exposures.

Till is joint PI on an NIH/NICHD R01 on “Causal pathways to antiretroviral treatment impact on population health,” joint PI on an NIH/NICHD R01 on “Understanding causal pathways of HIV acquisition and transmission,” joint PI on an NIH/Fogarty D43 on “Training Tanzanian researchers in HIV implementation science,” co-I on NIH/NMH R01 “The impact of antiretroviral therapy on HIV epidemic dynamics,” co-I on an NIH/NIAID R01 on “Developing novel methods for HIV prevention research,” and PI of the HIV component on an NIH/NIA P01 “Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal studies of 3 INDEPTH communities.”  Till is also PI of three large-scale health systems trials – to establish (1) the causal impact of a community health worker intervention on uptake of antenatal care and prevention of mother-to-child transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (Elton John AIDS Foundation); (2) the causal impact of a Quality Improvement (QI) intervention on uptake and quality of antenatal and postnatal care in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (European Commission); and (3) the causal impact of home-based delivery of antiretroviral medicines on health and health systems outcomes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (3ie). Till also leads the economic evaluation and health systems components in two HIV treatment-as-prevention trials in sub-Saharan Africa – the ANRS-funded TasP trial in South Africa and the CHAI-supported MaxART study in Swaziland.  His research has also been funded by World Bank, WHO, UNAIDS, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, USAID, IDRC Canada, Rush Foundation, GAVI Alliance, a Large Anonymous Donor, DFID, and Harvard University.

Till has published more than 150 peer-reviewed articles, including in Science, PNAS, Lancet and PLOS Medicine. He is a medical specialist in Family Medicine and holds doctoral degrees in International Health Economics (Harvard) and History of Medicine (University of Heidelberg), as well as master degrees in Health Systems Management (LSHTM) and Financial Economics (SOAS).  He previously worked as physician in Germany, China, and South Africa; as journalist in Berlin; and as management consultant for McKinsey & Company in Europe.


ScD International Health (Economics), Harvard School of Public Health, 2008

MSc Financial Economics, SOAS, University of London, 2006

Medical Specialist Board Certification in Family Medicine (Germany), 2002

MSc Health Systems Management, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 2001

MD, Medical School, University of Heidelberg, , 1998

Dr. med. (research degree) History of Medicine, Institute of History and Ethics of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, 1998


McGovern M, Aldrice R, Canning D, Marra G, Newell M, Bärnighausen T (2015). Adjusting for Non-Participation Bias at an HIV Surveillance Site in Rural South Africa. Journal of the International AIDS Society [accepted].

Haber N, Porter K, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T (2015). Constructing the cascade of HIV care: methods for measurement. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS [accepted].

Bor J, Rosen S, Chimbindi N, Haber N, Herbst K, Mutevedzi T, Tanser F, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T (2015). Mass HIV treatment and sex disparities in life expectancy: demographic surveillance in rural South Africa. PLOS Medicine [accepted].

Herbst J, Law M, Geldsetzer P, Harling G, Bärnighausen T (2015). Innovations in health and demographic surveillance systems to establish the causal impacts of HIV policies. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS ; 10(6):483-94.

Vandormael A, Boulware D, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Oliveira T (2015). Virologic monitoring can be a cost-effective strategy to diagnose treatment failure on first-line ART.  JAIDS [accepted].

Ortblad K, Salomon J, Bärnighausen T, Atun R (2015). Tuberculosis control – a biosocial approach for sustainable development. Lancet [forthcoming].

Rosenberg M, Pettifor A, Nguyen N, Westreich D, Bor J, Bärnighausen T, Mee P, Twine R, Tollman S, Kahn K (2015). Relationship between receipt of a social protection grant for a child and second pregnancy rates among South African women: A cohort study. PLOS ONE; 10(9):e0137352.

Bor J, Geldsetzer P, Venkataramani A, Bärnighausen T (2015). Quasi-experiments to establish causal effects of HIV care and treatment and to improve the cascade of care. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS; 10(6): 495-501.

Parks T, Kado J, Miller A, Ward B, Heenan R, Colquhoun S, Bärnighausen T, Mirabel M, Bloom D, Bailey R, Tukana I, Steer A (2015). Rheumatic heart disease-attributable mortality at ages 5-69 years in Fiji: a five-year, national, population-based record-linkage cohort study. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 9(9):e0004033.

Chimbindi N, Bor J, Newell M, Tanser F, Baltussen R, Hontelez J, de Vlas S, Lurie M, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T (2015). Time and money: the true costs of health care utilization for patients receiving ‘free’ HIV/TB care and treatment in rural KwaZulu-Natal. JAIDS; 70(2): e52-60.

Plazy M, Dabis F, Naidu K, Orne-Gliemann J, Bärnighausen T, Dray-Spira R (2015). Change of treatment guidelines and evolution of ART initiation in rural South Africa: data of a large HIV care and treatment programme. BMC Infectious Diseases [accepted].

Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Vandormael A, Dobra A (2015). The HIV treatment cascade in migrants and mobile populations. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS; 10(6): 495-501.

Anekwe T, Tanser F, Newell M, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T (2015). The effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: a mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa. Vaccine [Epub ahead of print].

Langlois E, Ranson M, Bärnighausen T, Bosch-Capblanch X, Daniels K, El-Jardali F, Ghaffar A, Grimshaw J, Haines A, Lavis J, Lewin S, Meng Q, Oliver S, Pantoja T, Straus S, Shemilt I, Tovey D, Tugwell P, Waddington H, Wilson M, Yuan B, Røttingen J (2015). Advancing the field of health systems research synthesis. Systematic Reviews; 4: 90.

Schomaker M, Hogger S, Johnson L, Hoffman C, Bärnighausen T, Heumann C (2015). Simultaneous treatment of missing data and measurement error in HIV research using multiple overimputation. Epidemiology16(5): 628-636.

Otieno G, Marinda E, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F (2015). High rates of homicide in a rural South Africa population  (2000-2008): findings from a population-based cohort study. Population Health Metrics13: 20.

Harling G, Newell M, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T (2015). Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa. AIDS and Behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Elkies N, Fink G, Bärnighausen T (2015).‘‘Scrambling’’ geo-referenced data to protect privacy induces bias in distance estimation. Population and Environment [Epub ahead of print].

Rockers P, Rottingen J, Shemilt I, Tugwell P, Bärnighausen T (2015). Inclusion of quasi-experimental studies in systematic reviews of health systems research. Health Policy [Epub ahead of print].

Bärnighausen T, Eyal N, Wikler D (2015). HIV treatment-as-prevention research: authors’ reply. PLOS Medicine; 12(3): e1001799.

Orne-Gliemann J, Larmarange J, Boyer S, Iwuji C, McGrath N, Bärnighausen T, Zuma T, Dray-Spira R, Spire B, Rochat T, Lert F, Imrie J (2015). Addressing social issues in a universal HIV test and treat intervention trial (ANRS 12249 TasP) in South Africa: methods for appraisal. BMC Public Health; 15(1): 1344.

Larmarange J, Mossong J, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2015). Participation dynamics in population-based longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa. PLOS ONE [accepted].

Foster D , Khalil G, Farris S, Bärnighausen T, Prokhorov A (2015). Effects of readiness to change, quit history, and health perceptions on depressive symptoms among young adult smokers. International Journal of Psychology and Psychoanalysis [forthcoming]. 

Vollmer S, Alfven T, Padayachy J, Harttgen K, Ghys P, Bärnighausen T (2015). HIV surveys in older adults: better data, better health. Lancet HIV; 2: e40-e41.

Ardington C, Bärnighausen T, Case A, Menendez A (2015). Social Protection and Labor Market Outcomes of Youth in South Africa. ILR Review [forthcoming].

Bor J, Moscoe E, Bärnighausen T (2014). Three approaches to causal inference in regression discontinuity designs. Epidemiology; 26(2): e28-30.

Harling G, Tanser F, Mutevedzi T, Bärnighausen T (2014). Assessing the validity of respondents’ reports of their partners’ ages in a rural South African population-based cohort. BMJ Open5(3):e005638.

Kendall T, Bärnighausen T, Fawzi W, Langer A (2014). Towards comprehensive women’s healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing intersections between HIV, reproductive and maternal health. JAIDS67(Suppl 4): S169-72.

Hope R, Kendall T, Fawzi W, Langer A, Bärnighausen T (2014). Integrating HIV and sexual and reproductive health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping study. JAIDS; 67(Suppl 4):S259-70.

Raifman J, Chetty T, Tanser F, Mutevedzi T, Matthews P, Herbst K, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T (2014). Preventing pregnancy and HIV transmission: The effect of the HIV treatment cascade on contraceptive choice in rural KwaZulu-Natal. JAIDS ; 67(Suppl 4):S218-27.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D, Cafiero E, O’Brien J (2014). Valuing vaccination. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science; 111(34): 12313-12319.

Moscoe E, Bor J, Bärnighausen T (2014). Regression discontinuity designs in medicine, epidemiology, and public health: a review of current and best practice. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology;  68(2): 122-133

Ardington C, Bärnighausen T, Case A, Menendez A (2014). The economic consequences of AIDS mortality in South Africa. Journal of Development Economics; 111: 48-60.

McGovern M, Bärnighausen T, Marra G, Aldrice R (2014). On the assumption of joint normality in selection models: a copula approach applied to estimating HIV prevalence. Epidemiology; 26(2): 229-37.

Lema I, Sando D, Magesa L, Machumi L, Mungure E, Mwanyika Sando M, Kajoka D, Geldsetzer P, Spiegelman D, Li N, Chalamilla G, Fawzi W, Bärnighausen T (2014). Community health workers to improve antenatal care and PMTCT uptake in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a quantitative performance evaluation. JAIDS67(Suppl 4): S195-201.

Mills E, Lester R, Thorlund K, Lorenzi M, Muldoon D, Kanters S, Linnemayr S, Gross R, Calderon Y, Amico K, Thirumurthy  H, Pearson C, Remien R, Mbuagbaw L, Thabane L, Chung M, Wilson I, Liu A, Uthman O, Simoni J, Bangsberg D, Yaya S, Bärnighausen T, Ford N, Nachega J (2014). Interventions to promote adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Africa: a network meta-analysis. Lancet HIV; 1: e104–11.

Brenner S, Muula A, Robyn P, Bärnighausen T, Sarker M, Mathanga D, Bossert T, De Allegri M (2014). Design of an impact evaluation using a mixed methods model–an explanatory assessment of the effects of results-based financing mechanisms on maternal healthcare services in Malawi. BMC Health Services Research; 2014, 22(4): 180.

Sando D, Geldsetzer P, Magesa L, Andrew I, Machumi L, Mwanyika-Sando M, Li N, Spiegelman D, Mungure E, Siril H, Mujinja P, Naburi H, Chalamilla G, Kilewo C, Ekström A, Fawzi W, Bärnighausen T (2014). A cluster-randomized controlled health systems implementation trial of a community health worker intervention and the World Health Organization’s Option B versus Option A to improve antenatal care and PMTCT outcomes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: the Familia Salama trial. Trials; 15: 359.

Silal S, Penn-Kekana L, Bärnighausen T, Schneider H (2014). Local level inequalities in the use of hospital-based maternal delivery in rural South Africa. Globalization and Health10: 60.

Harling G, Newell M, Tanser F, Kawachi I, Subramanian S, Bärnighausen T (2014). Do age-disparate relationships drive HIV incidence in young women? Evidence from a population cohort in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. JAIDS; 66(4): 443-451.

Bärnighausen T, Eyal N, Wikler D (2014). HIV treatment-as-prevention research at a crossroads. PLOS Medicine, 11(6): e1001654.

Bor J, Moscoe E, Mutevedzi P, Newell M, Bärnighausen T (2014). Regression discontinuity designs in epidemiology: causal inference without randomized trials. Epidemiology; 25(5): 729-737

Yeji F, Klippstein-Grobusch K, Newell ML, Hirschhorn L, Hosegood V, Bärnighausen T (2014). Are social support and HIV coping strategies associated with lower depression in adults on antiretroviral treatment? Evidence from rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. AIDS Care; 26(12):1482-9.

Bärnighausen T, Berkley S, Bhutta Z, Bishai D, Black M, Bloom D, Constenla D, Driessen J, Edmunds J, Evans D, Griffiths U, Hansen P, Hashmani F, Hutubessy R, Jamison D, Jha P, Jit M, Johnson H, Laxminarayan R, Lee B, Mhatre S, Mills A, Nordström A, Ozawa S, Prosser L, Silver K, Benn C, Standaert B, Walker D (2014). Reassessing the value of vaccines. Lancet Global Health; 2(5): e251-252.

Eaton J, Menzies N, Stover J, Cambiano V, Chindelevitch L, Cori A, Hontelez J, Humair S, Kerr C, Klein D, Mishra S, Mitchell K, Nichols B, Vickerman P, Bakker R, Bärnighausen T, Bershteyn A, Bloom D, Boily M, Chang S, Cohen T, Dodd P, Fraser C, Gopalappa C, Lundgren J, Martin N, Mikkelsen E, Mountain E, Pham Q, Pickles M, Phillips A, Platt L, Pretorius C, Prudden H, Salomon J, van de Vijver D, de Vlas S, Wagner B, White R, Wilson D, Zhang L, Blandford J, Meyer-Rath G, Remme M, Revill P, Sangrujee N, Terris-Prestholt F, Doherty M, Shaffer N, Easterbrook P, Hirnschall G, Hallett T (2014). Health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of earlier eligibilityfor adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage: a combined analysis of 12 mathematical models. Lancet Global Health, 2(1): 23-34.

Chaiyachati K, Ogbuoji O, Price M, Suthar A, Negussie E, Bärnighausen T (2014). Interventions to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a global systematic review. AIDS; 28 Suppl 2:S187-204.

Oldenburg C, Perez-Brumer A, Reisner S, Mattie J, Bärnighausen T, Mayer K, Mimiaga M (2014). Global Burden of HIV Among Men who Engage in Transactional Sex: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLOS ONE; 9(7): e103549.

Tanser F, Fraser C, de Oliveira T, Maheu-Giroux M, Bärnighausen T (2014). Concentrated HIV sub-epidemics in generalized epidemic settings. Current Opinion in HIV/AIDS; 9(2): 115-125.

Gore R, Fox A, Goldberg A, Bärnighausen T (2014). Bringing the state back in: Understanding and validating measures of governments’ political commitment to HIV. Global Public Health; 9(1-2): 98-120.

Foster D, Young C, Bärnighausen, T  (2014). Self-control as a moderator of the relationship between drinking identity and alcohol use. Substance Use and Misuse49(10):1340-1348.

Vandormael A, Newell M, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F (2014). Use of antiretroviral therapy in households and risk of HIV acquisition in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2004-12: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Global Health; 2: e209-e215.

Harling G, Subramanian S, Bärnighausen T, Kawachi I (2014). Income inequality and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States: Who bears the burden? Social Science and Medicine; 102: 174-182.

Chimbindi N, Bärnighausen T, Newell M (2014). Patient satisfaction with HIV and TB treatment in a public programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal: evidence from patient-exit interviews. BMC Public Health; 14: 32.

Robyn P, Bärnighausen T, Souares A, Savadogo G, Bicaba B, Sié A, Sauerborn R (2014). Provider payment methods and health worker motivation in community-based health insurance: a mixed-methods study. Social Science and Medicine; 107: 1-14.

Bowser D, Sparkes S, Mitchell A, Bossert T, Bärnighausen T, Gedik G, Atun R (2014). Global Fund investments in human resources for health: innovation and missed opportunities for health systems strengthening. Health Policy and Planning29(8): 986-99.

Eaton J, Menzies N, Stover H, Cambiano V, Chindelevitch L, Cori A, Hontelez J, Humair S, Kerr C, Klein D, Mishra S, Mitchell K, Nichols B, Vickerman P, Bakker R, Bärnighausen T, Bershteyn A, Bloom D, Boily M, Chang S, Cohen T, Dodd J,  Fraser C, Gopalappa C, Lundgren J, Martin N, Mikkelsen E, Mountain E, Pham Q, Pickles M, Phillips A, Platt L,  Pretorius C, Prudden H, Salomon J, van de Vijver D, de Vlas S, Wagner B, White R, Wilson D, Zhang L Blandford J, Meyer-Rath G, Remme M, Revill P, Sangrujee N, Terris-Prestholt F, Doherty M, Shaffer N, Easterbrook P, Hirnschall G (2014). How should HIV programmes respond to evidence for the benefits of earlier treatment initiation? A combined analysis of twelve mathematical models. Lancet Global Health; 2(1): e23-e34.

Hontelez J, Lurie M, Bärnighausen T, Bakker R, Baltussen R, Tanser F, Hallett T, Newell M, de Vlas S (2013). Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therap: a mode comparison study. PLOS Medicine; 10(10):e1001534.

Manne J, Snively C, Ramsey J, Salgado M, Bärnighausen T, Reich M (2013). Barriers to treatment access for Chagas disease in Mexico. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases; 7(10):e2488.

Harling G, Subramanian S, Bärnighausen T, Kawachi I (2013). Socioeconomic disparities in sexually transmitted infections among young adults in the United States: examining the interaction between income and race/ethnicity. Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(7):575-81.

Iwuji CC, Orne-Gliemann J, Tanser F, Boyer S, Lessells RJ, Lert F, Imrie J, Bärnighausen T, Rekacewicz C, Bazin B, Newell ML, Dabis F; ANRS 12249 TasP Study Group (2013). Evaluation of the impact of immediate versus WHO recommendations-guided antiretroviral therapy initiation on HIV incidence: the ANRS 12249 TasP (Treatment as Prevention) trial in Hlabisa sub-district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial. Trials; 14: 230.

Oldenburg C, Bärnighausen T, Harling G, Mimiaga M, Mayer K (2014). Adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis for non-forcible sexual exposure to HIV: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS & Behavior; 18(2): 217-225.

Mossong J,  Grapsa E, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2013). Modelling HIV incidence and survival from age-specific seroprevalence after antiretroviral treatment scale up in rural South Africa. AIDS; 27(15): 2471-2479.

McGrath N, Eaton J, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Newell ML (2013). Sexual behaviour in a rural high HIV prevalence South African community: time trends in the antiretroviral treatment era.AIDS; 27(15): 2461-2470.

Malaza A, Mossong J, Bärnighausen T, Viljoen J, Newell ML (2013). Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage. PLOS ONE; 8(7): e70126.

Rosenberg N, Westreich D, Bärnighausen T, Miller WC, Behets F, Maman S, Newell ML, Pettifor A (2013). Assessing the Effect of HIV Counseling and Testing on HIV Acquisition among South African Youth.AIDS; 27(17): 2765-2773.

Robyn J, Bärnighausen T, Souares A, Savadogo G, Bicaba B, Sié A, Sauerborn R (2013). Does enrollment status in community-based insurance lead to poorer quality of care? Evidence from Burkina Faso. International Journal for Equity in Health; 12:31.

Zaidi J, Grapsa E, Tanser F, Newell ML, Bärnighausen T (2013) Dramatic increases in HIV prevalence after scale-up of antiretroviral treatment. AIDS; 27(14): 2301-2305.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE, Cafiero E, O’Brien J (2013). Valuing the broader benefits of dengue vaccination, with a preliminary application to Brazil.Seminars in Immunology; 25(2): 104-113.

Harling G, Subramanian S, Bärnighausen T, Kawachi I (2013). Socioeconomic disparities in Sexually Transmitted Infections among young adults in the United States: examining interactions between income and race/ethnicity. Sexually Transmitted Diseases; 40(7): 575-581.

Rockers P, Bärnighausen T (2013). Interventions for hiring, retaining and training district health systems managers in low- and middle-income countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reivews; 4:CD009035. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009035.pub2

Ettenger A, Bärnighausen T, Castro A (2013). Health insurance for the poor decreases access to HIV testing in antenatal care: evidence of an unintended effect of health insurance reform in Colombia. Health Policy and Planning; 29(3): 352-358.

Bor J, Herbst K, Newell M, Bärnighausen T (2013). Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of ART. Science339: 961-965.

Alcalde‐Rabanal JE, Bärnighausen T, Nigenda G, Velasco‐Mondragón E, Sosa‐Rubí S (2013). [Human resources needed to staff health prevention and promotion for adults in primary health care]. Salud Pública de México; 55(3): 301-309.

Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Grapsa E, Zaidi J, and Newell M (2013). High coverage of ART associated with decline in risk of HIV acquisition in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Science339: 966-971.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE, Humair S (2012). Economics of antiretroviral treatment vs. circumcision for. HIV prevention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science109(52): 21271-21276.

Barter D, Agboola S, Murray M, Bärnighausen T (2012). Tuberculosis and poverty: the contribution of patient costs in sub-Saharan Africa – a systematic review. BMC Public Health12: 980.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D, Cafiero E, O’Brien J (2012). Economic evaluation of vaccination: capturing the full benefits, with an application to HPV. Clinical Microbiology and Infection; 18: 70-76.

Hontelez J, Newell M, Bland R, Munnelly K, Lessells R, Bärnighausen T (2012). Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa a time and motion study. Human Resources for Health; 10: 39.

Zhou J, Lurie M, Bärnighausen T, McGarvey S, Newell ML, Tanser F (2012). Determinants and spatial patterns of adult overweight and hypertension in a high HIV prevalence rural South African population. Health & Place18(6): 1300-1306.

Malaza A, Mossong J, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2012). Determinants and spatial patterns of adult overweight and hypertension in a high HIV prevalence rural South African population. PLOS ONE7(10): e47761.

Chimbindi N, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2012). An integrated approach to improving the availability and utilization of healthcare in rural South Africa. South African Medical Journal; 103(4): 237-240.

Hogan D, Salomon J, Canning D, Hammitt J, Zaslavsky A, Bärnighausen T (2012). National HIV prevalence estimates for sub-Saharan Africa: controlling selection bias with Heckman-type selection models. Sexually Transmitted Infections88(suppl 2): i17-i23.

Moat K, Lavis J, Wilson M, Røttingen JA, Bärnighausen T (2012). Twelve myths about systematic reviews for health system policymaking. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy18(1): 44-50.

Bor J, Tanser F, Newell ML, Bärnighausen T (2012). Nearly full employment recovery among South African HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy: evidence from a large population cohort. Health Affairs31(7): 1459-1469.

Nozaki I, Kuriyama M, Manyepa P, Zyambo M, Kakimoto K, Bärnighausen T (2012). False beliefs about ART effectiveness, side effects and the consequences of non-retention and non-adherence among ART patients in Livingstone, Zambia. AIDS and Behavior17(1): 122-126.

Negin J, Mills E, Bärnighausen T, Lundgren J (2012). Aging with AIDS in Africa: the challenges of living longer. AIDS26(Suppl 1): S1-S5.

Hontelez J, de Vlas S, Baltussen R, Newell ML, Bakker R, Tanser F, Lurie M, Bärnighausen T (2012). The impact of antiretroviral treatment on the age composition of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS; 26(Suppl 1): S19-S30.

Bärnighausen T, Salomon  J, Sangrujree N (2012). HIV treatment as prevention: issues in economic evaluation. PlOS Medicine9(7): e1001263.

Eaton J, Johnson L, Salomon J, Bärnighausen T, Bendavid E, Bershteyn A, Bloom D, Cambiano V, Fraser C, Hontelez J, Humair S, Klein D, Long E, Phillips A, Pretorius C, Stover J, Wenger E, Williams B,  Hallett T (2012). Systematic comparison of mathematical models of the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy on HIV incidence in South Africa. PLOS Medicine9(7): e1001245.

Robyn J, Bärnighausen T, Souares A, Savadogo G, Bicaba, Sié A, Sauerborn R (2012). Health worker preferences for community-based health insurance payment mechanisms: a discrete choice experiment. BMC Health Services Research12(1): 159.

Olgiati A, Bärnighausen T, Newell M (2012). Do self-assessments of health predict future mortality in rural South Africa? The case of KwaZulu-Natal in the era of HIV antiretroviral treatment. Tropical Medicine & International Health17(7): 844-853.

Kassanjee R, McWalter T, Bärnighausen T, Welte A (2012). A new general biomarker-based incidence estimator. Epidemiology23(5):721-8.

Eyal N, Bärnighausen T (2012). Precommitting to serve the underserved. American Journal of Bioethics12(5): 23-34.

Robyn J, Sauerborn R, Bärnighausen T (2012). Provider payment in community-based health insurance schemes in developing countries: a systematic review. Health Policy and Planning [Epub ahead of print].

Mills E, Bärnighausen T, Negin J (2012). AIDS and aging: preparing for the challenges ahead. New England Journal of Medicine366(14): 1270-1273.

Anand S, Bärnighausen T (2012). Health workers at the core of the health system: framework and research issues. Health Policy105(2): 185-191.

Giordano K, Bärnighausen T, McGrath N, Snow R, Harlow S, Newell ML (2012). Factors associated with repeated refusal to participate in a longitudinal population-based HIV surveillance in rural South Africa: an observational study, regression analysis, 2004-2007. Journal of HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Epidemiology4(1): 1.

Rockers P, Feigl A, Røttingen JA, Fretheim A, de Ferranti D, Lavis J, Melberg H, Bärnighausen T (2012). Study-design selection criteria in systematic reviews of effectiveness of health systems interventions and reforms: a meta-review. Health Policy104(3): 206-2014.

Chimbindi N, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2011). Almost universal coverage: HIV testing among TB patients in a rural public program. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease11(12): 942-951.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Dabis F, Newell ML (2012). Interventions to improve the performance of HIV health systems for treatment-as-prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the experimental evidence. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS11(12): 942-951.

Floyd S, Marston M, Baisley K, Wringe A, Herbst K, Chihana M, Kasamba I, Bärnighausen T, Urassa M, Glynn J, Todd J, Zaba B (2012). The effect of antiretroviral therapy provision on all-cause and cause-specific mortality at the population level – a comparative analysis of data from 4 demographic surveillance sites in Southern and East Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health; 17(8): e3-14.

Bärnighausen T, Chaiyachati K, Chimbindi N, Peoples A, Haberer J, Newell ML (2011). Interventions to increase antiretroviral adherence  in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of evaluation studies. Lancet Infectious Diseases11(12): 942-951.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE, Humair S (2011). Health systems and HIV treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: matching intervention and program evaluation strategies. Sexually Transmitted Infections88(2): 100-105.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Malaza A, Herbst K, Newell ML. (2012). HIV status and participation in HIV surveillance in the era of antiretroviral treatment: a study of linked population-based and clinical data in rural South Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health17(8): e103-111.

Zaba B, Kasamba I, Floyd S, Isingo R, Herbst K, Bärnighausen T, Gregson S, Todd J, Marston M, Wringe A. (2011). Using age-specific mortality of HIV infected persons to predict anti-retroviral Treatment need: a comparative analysis of data from five African population-based cohort studies. Tropical Medicine & International Health17(8): e84-93.

Goldberg AB, Fox A, Gore R, Bärnighausen T (2011) Indicators of political commitment to respond to HIV.Sexually Transmitted Infections88(2): 79-84.

Rochat T, Tomlinson M, Newell ML, Bärnighausen T, Stein A (2011). The prevalence and clinical presentation of antenatal depression in rural South Africa. Journal of Affective Disorders135(1-3):362-373.

Fox A, Goldberg A, Gore R, Bärnighausen T (2011). Conceptual and methodological challenges to measuring political commitment to respond to HIV. Journal of the International AIDS Society14(suppl2): S25.

Bärnighausen T, Kyle M, Salomon J, Waning B (2011). Assessing the population health impact of market interventions to improve access to antiretroviral treatment. Health Policy and Planning [in press].

Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Hund L, Garnett G, McGrath N, Newell ML (2011). The impact of concurrent sexual partnerships on the rate of new HIV infections in a high prevalence, rural South African population. The Lancet378(9787): 247-255.

Hontelez J, Nagelkerke N, Bärnighausen T, Bakker R, Tanser F, Newell ML, Lurie M, Baltussen R, de Vlas S (2011). The potential impact of RV144-like vaccines in rural South Africa: a study using the STDSIM microsimulation model. Vaccine; 29(36): 6100-6106.

Hontelez J, de Vlas S, Tanser F, Bakker R, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML, Baltussen R, Lurie M (2011). The impact of the new WHO antiretroviral treatment guidelines on HIV epidemic dynamics and cost in South Africa. PLOS ONE6(7): e21919.

Hontelez J, Lurie M, Newell ML, Bakker R, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Baltussen R, de Vlas S (2011). Ageing with HIV in South Africa. AIDS25(13): 1665-1667.

Bor J, Bärnighausen T, Newell C, Tanser F, Newell ML (2011). Social exposure to an antiretroviral treatment program in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Tropical Medicine & International Health [in press].

Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE, Humair S (2011). Going horizontal — shifts in funding of global health interventions. New England Journal of Medicine364(23): 2181-2183.

Ndirangu J, Bland R, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2011). Validating child vaccination status in a demographic surveillance system using data from a clinical cohort study: evidence from rural South Africa. BMC Public Health11(1):372.

Bärnighausen T, Bor J, Wandira-Kazibwe S, Canning D (2011). Interviewer identity as exclusion restriction in epidemiology. Epidemiology22(3): 446.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom DE, Canning D, Friedman A, Levine O, O’Brien J, Privor-Dumm J, Walker D (2011). Rethinking the benefits and costs of childhood vaccination: the example of the Haemophilus influenza type b vaccine.Vaccine29(13): 2371-2380.

Ott M, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Lurie M, Newell ML (2011). Age-gaps in sexual partnerships in rural KwaZulu-Natal: seeing beyond ‘sugar daddies’. AIDS25(6): 861-863.

Chaiyachati K, Hirschhorn L, Tanser F, Newell ML, Bärnighausen T (2011). Validating five questions of antiretroviral non-adherence in a public-sector treatment program in rural South Africa. AIDS Patient Care and STDs25(3): 163-170.

Bärnighausen T, Bor J, Wandira-Kazibwe S, Canning D (2011). Correcting HIV prevalence estimates for survey non-participation using Heckman-type selection models. Epidemiology22(1): 27-35.

Cooke G, Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2010). Population uptake of antiretroviral treatment through primary care in rural South Africa. BMC Public Health; 10(1): 585.

Bärnighausen T (2010). The role of the health system in HIV treatment-as-prevention. AIDS13(24: 2741-2742 .

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D, Humair S (2010). Universal antiretroviral treatment: the challenge of human resources. Bulletin of the World Health Organization88: 951-952.

Waning B, Diedrichsen E, Jambert E, Bärnighausen T, Li Y, Pouw M, Moon S (2010). The global pediatric antiretroviral market: analyses of product availability and utilization reveal challenges for development of pediatric formulations and HIV/AIDS treatment in children. BMC Pediatrics10: 74.

Wallrauch C, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2010). HIV infection of concern also in people 50 years and older in rural South Africa. South African Medical Journal100(12): 812-814.

Nyirenda M, Zaba B, Bärnighausen T, Hosegood V, Newell, ML (2010). Adjusting HIV prevalence for survey non-response using mortality rates: an application of the method using surveillance data from rural South Africa. PLOS ONE5(8): e12370.

Bärnighausen T, McWalter T, Rosner Z, Newell ML, Welte A (2010). Use of the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to estimate HIV incidence: systematic review and sensitivity analysis. Epidemiology21(5): 685-697.

Mutevedzi P, Lessells R, Heller T, Bärnighausen T, Cooke G, Newell ML (2010). Scale-up of a decentralised HIV treatment programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: does rapid expansion affect patient outcomes? Bulletin of the World Health Organization88: 593-600.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Hallet T, Newell ML (2010). Prioritizing communities for HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses26(4): 401-405.

Camlin C, Hosegood V, Newell ML, McGrath N, Bärnighausen T, Snow R (2010). Gender, migration and HIV in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. PLOS  ONE5(7):e11539.

Waning B, Kyle M, Diedrichsen E, Soucy L, Hochstadt J, Bärnighausen T, Moon S (2010). Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets. Globalization and Health25(6): 9.

Wallrauch C, Heller T, Lessells R, Kekane E, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2009). High uptake of HIV testing for TB patients in an integrated primary health care HIV/TB programme rural KwaZulu-Natal. South African Medical Journal100(3): 146-147.

Heller T, Lessells R, Wallrauch C, Bärnighausen T, Cooke G, Mhlongo L, Master I, Newell ML (2010). Community-based treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in rural KwaZulu-Natal. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease14(4): 420-426.

Ndirangu J, Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Tint K, Newell ML (2009). Levels of childhood vaccination coverage and the impact of maternal HIV status on child vaccination status in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.Tropical Medicine & International Health; 14(11): 1383-1393.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F (2009). Rethinking the role of the local community in HIV epidemic spread in sub-Saharan Africa: a proximate-determinants approach. HIV Therapy3(5): 1-11.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D (2009). “Conditional scholarships” for HIV/AIDS health workers: educating and retaining the workforce to provide antiretroviral treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science & Medicine68: 544-551.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Newell ML (2009). Lack of a decline in HIV incidence in a rural community with high HIV prevalence in South Africa, 2003-2007. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses; 25(4): 405-409.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D (2009). Financial incentives for return of service in underserved areas: a systematic review, BMC Health Services Research29(9): 86.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D (2009). Designing financial-incentive programs for return of service in underserved areas: seven management functions. Human Resources for Health; 7(1): 52.

Welte A, McWalter T, Bärnighausen T (2009). Reply to ‘Should biomarker estimates of HIV incidence be adjusted?’. AIDS23(15): 2062-2063.

Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Cooke G, Newell ML (2009). Localised spatial clustering of HIV infections in a widely-disseminated rural South African epidemic. International Journal of Epidemiology38(4): 1008-1016.

Franey C, Knott D, Bärnighausen T, Dedicoat M, Adam A, Lessells R, Newell ML, Cooke G (2009). Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme. BMC Infectious Diseases9: 143.

Welte A, McWalter T, Bärnighausen T (2009). A simplified formula for inferring HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys using a test for recent infection. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses25(1): 125-126.

Herbst K, Cooke G, Bärnighausen T, Kany Kany A, Tanser F, Newell ML (2009). Adult mortality and antiretroviral treatment roll-out in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization87:1-9.

Hallet T, Ghys P, Bärnighausen T, Yan P, Garnett G (2009). Errors in ‘BED’-derived estimates of HIV incidence will vary by place, time and age, PLOS ONE4(5): e5720.

Bärnighausen T, Wallrauch C, Welte A, McWalter T, Mbizana N, Viljoen J, Graham N, Tanser F, Puren A, Newell ML (2008). Validating cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates in rural South Africa. PLOS ONE; 3(11): e3640.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D, O’Brien J (2008). Accounting for the full benefits of childhood vaccination in South Africa. South African Medical Journal98(11): 842-846.

Wallrauch C, Bärnighausen T, Heller T, Houlihan C, Newell ML (2008). The white and the three-letter plague: integration of TB and HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV Therapy2(5): 437-451.

Bärnighausen T (2008). Reasons for loss to follow-up in antiretroviral treatment programs in South Africa. HIV Therapy2(2): 141-145.

Bärnighausen T, Hosegood V, Timaeus I, Newell ML (2007). The socioeconomic determinants of HIV incidence: evidence from a longitudinal, population-based study in rural South Africa. AIDS21: S29-S38.

Bärnighausen T, Tanser F, Gqwede Z, Mbizana C, Herbst K, Newell ML (2007). High HIV incidence in a community with high HIV prevalence in rural South Africa: findings from a prospective population-based study. AIDS22(1): 139-144.

Bärnighausen T, Welz T, Hosegood V, Bätzing-Feigenbaum J, Tanser F, Herbst K, Hill C, Newell ML (2007). Hiding in the shadows of the HIV epidemic: hypertension and obesity in a population with high HIV prevalence in rural South Africa. Journal of Human Hypertension22(3): 236-239.

Bärnighausen T, Bloom D, Humair S (2007). Human resources for treating HIV/AIDS: needs, capacities, and gaps. AIDS Patient Care and STDs21(11): 799-812.

Bärnighausen T (2007). Access to antiretroviral treatment in the developing world: a framework, review and health systems research agenda. Therapy; 4(6): 753-766.

Bärnighausen T, Xolo V, Cooke G (2007). Evaluating the performance of antiretroviral treatment programs: mortality and loss to follow-up. PLOS Medicine;O 28 December 2007.

Bossert T, Bärnighausen T, Bowser D, Mitchell A, Gedik G (2007). Assessing Financing, Education, Management and Policy Context for Strategic Planning of Human Resources in Health. Geneva: World Health Organization (WHO) [English, French and Russian version].

Bärnighausen T, Liu Y, Zhang X, Sauerborn R (2007). A contingent valuation study of willingness to pay for health insurance among informal sector workers in urban China. BMC Health Services Research; 7:114.

Newell ML, Bärnighausen T (2007). Male circumcision to cut HIV risk in the general population. The Lancet369: 617-619.

Anand S, Bärnighausen T (2007). Authors’ reply: health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries. The Lancet370: 481-482.

Anand S, Bärnighausen T (2007). Health workers and vaccination coverage in developing countries. Lancet369: 1277-1285.

Zaba B, Marston M, Crampin A, Isingo R, Biraro S, Bärnighausen T, Lopman B, Lutalo T, Glynn J, Todd J (2007). Age-specific mortality patterns in HIV infected individuals: a comparative analysis of African community study data. AIDS21(suppl 6): S87-S96.

Nyirenda M, Hosegood V, Bärnighausen T, Newell ML (2007). Mortality levels and trends by HIV serostatus in rural South Africa. AIDS; 21(suppl 6): S73-S79.

Tanser F, Hosegood V, Bärnighausen T, Herbst K, Nyirenda M, Muhwava W, Newell C, Viljoen J, Mutevedzi T, Newell ML (2007). Cohort profile: Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS) and population-based HIV survey. International Journal of Epidemiology37(5): 956-962.

Rice D, Bätzing-Feigenbaum J, Hosegood V, Tanser F, Hill C, Bärnighausen T, Herbst K, Newell ML (2006). Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa. BMC Public Health7:160.

Anand S, Bärnighausen T (2004). Human resources and health outcomes: cross-country econometric study. Lancet364: 1603-1609.

Bärnighausen T, Sauerborn R (2002). One hundred and eighteen years of the German health care system – are there any lessons learnt for low and middle income countries? Social Science & Medicine54: 1559-1587.