Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC)

Citation: Connor, K. M., & Davidson, J. R. (2003). Development of a new resilience scale: The Connor‐Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC). Depression and anxiety, 18(2), 76-82.

PMID or DOI: PMID: 12964174, DOI: 10.1002/da.10113

Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Resilience

Sub-constructs measured: N/A

Available subscales: N/A

Description: The Connor-Davidson Resilience measure is a self-rated assessment of stress coping ability. The scale was developed based on concepts of hardiness, adaptation, and stress endurance and validated in diverse samples. Initial factor analyses identified five factors: 1) notion of personal competence, high standards and tenacity, 2) trust in one’s instincts, tolerance of negative affect, and strengthening effects of stress, 3) positive acceptance of change, and secure relationships, 4) control, and 5) spiritual influences. Because factor structures may vary by setting, use of the total sum score has been recommended.

Number of items: 25

Example statement/item: “I am able to adapt when changes occur”

Response options: 5-point scale response, not true at all=0, rarely true=1, sometimes true=2, often true=3, and true nearly all of the time=4

Total score: Total sum scores range between 0-100, with higher scores indicating greater perceived resilience.

Abbreviated versions:

CD-RISC-10 item: Campbell‐Sills, L., & Stein, M. B. (2007). Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Connor–Davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC): Validation of a 10‐item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, 20(6), 1019-1028.

CD-RISC-2 item: Vaishnavi, S., Connor, K., & Davidson, J. R. (2007). An abbreviated version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), the CD-RISC2: Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials. Psychiatry research, 152(2-3), 293-297.

Examples of studies that link to health outcomes:

Schure, M. B., Odden, M., & Goins, R. T. (2013). The association of resilience with mental and physical health among older American Indians: The native elder care study. American Indian and Alaska native mental health research (Online), 20(2), 27.