Essential Resilience Scale

Citation: Chen, X., Wang, Y., & Yan, Y. (2016). The essential resilience scale: instrument development and prediction of perceived health and behaviour. Stress and Health, 32(5), 533-542.

PMID or DOI: PMID: 26541635, DOI: 10.1002/smi.2659

Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Resilience

Sub-constructs measured: Physical, emotional. and social resilience

Available subscales: Physical, emotional, and social resilience

Description: The Essential Resilience Scale measures an individual’s capability to anticipate, be flexible with, and bounce back from three types of adverse events: physical, emotional and social. Therefore, the scale was developed around a conceptual framework comprising these three capabilities (anticipation, flexibility and bounce back) and three types of traumatic and adverse events (physical, emotional and social). It is possible for individuals to show resilience to physical but not emotional trauma, for example, however, strengthening one dimension may also increase resilience in other dimensions.

Number of items: 15

Example statement/item: “Difficulties and hardship rarely stop me”

Response options: 5-point scale response, ranging from 1=totally disagree to 5=totally agree

Total score: Mean values on items within each subscale and for the total scale are calculated.

Examples of studies that link to health outcomes:

Wang, Y., Chen, X., Gong, J., & Yan, Y. (2016). Relationships between stress, negative emotions, resilience, and smoking: Testing a moderated mediation model. Substance use & misuse, 51(4), 427-438.