Though less commonly used and more intensive, observers can assess the resilience of an individual by rating their behavioral functioning as demonstrated before and/or after adversity. Often, these measures have been used for young children who have experienced adversity (e.g., parent or teacher reports of individual traits that reflect resilience in adversity-exposed youth), but have also been used in older populations (e.g., psychologist rating of an individual’s trait resilience, or their potential ability to cope with stress, among military conscripts).

Reference: Bergh, C., Udumyan, R., Fall, K., Nilsagard, Y., Appelros, P., & Montgomery, S. (2014). Stress resilience in male adolescents and subsequent stroke risk: cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 85(12), 1331-1336. doi:10.1136/jnnp-2013-307485