Residual-based measures

Resilience can also be derived as a continuous measure of resilience by estimating an individual’s psychological functioning relative to what would be expected given their level of exposure to trauma or adversity. These measures operationalize resilience as the residuals of psychological distress scores regressed on the burden of adversity exposure (e.g., count of recent stressful life events). The residuals estimate the difference between the actual and predicted level of distress for each individual in the sample, resulting in a range of residual scores that range from distress levels much worse to much better than expected given the amount of adversity experienced.

Reference: Sheerin, C. M., Lind, M. J., Brown, E. A., Gardner, C. O., Kendler, K. S., & Amstadter, A. B. (2018). The impact of resilience and subsequent stressful life events on MDD and GAD. Depression and anxiety, 35(2), 140-147.