Trauma Resilience Scale (TRS)

Citation: Madsen, M. D., & Abell, N. (2010). Trauma Resilience Scale: Validation of protective factors associated with adaptation following violence. Research on Social Work Practice, 20(2), 223-233.

PMID or DOI: doi: 10.1177/1049731509347853

Main positive psychological well-being construct measured: Protective factors

Sub-constructs measured: Problem solving, relationships, optimism and spirituality

Available subscales: Problem solving, relationships, optimism and spirituality

Description: The Trauma Resilience Scale assesses protective factors associated with positive adaptation following violence. Protective factors are positive features within the cognitive, emotional, environmental, social and spiritual experience of a person that are associated with and cumulatively facilitate resilience. Resilience is inferred from manifestation of competent functioning despite experiencing significant adversity. This scale focuses specifically on factors contributing to resilience following clearly defined types of violence: domestic violence, sexual abuse/rape, physical abuse/battery, assault/other life threatening event. Factors are identified in domains that contribute to adaptive responses – ability to generate and maintain supportive relationships, optimism or a hopeful and positive future outlook, problem-solving skills in the face of adversity, and later refinement included spirituality.

Number of items: 59

Example statement/item: “I stay in control if something bad happens” 

Response options: 7-point scale, 1=almost never true of me to 7=almost always true of me

Total score: Responses are averaged within each subscale.