This area focuses on the determinants of both unintended and expected effects of drugs, vaccines, biologics, medical procedures, and medical devices. Patterns of utilization, cost-benefit and risk-benefit analyses, and investigation of the distribution of diseases possibly amenable to medical intervention represent important secondary themes. Courses cover such areas as pharmacoepidemiology, comparative effectiveness, clinical trials, drug regulatory affairs, decision analysis, and health services research. Students have the opportunity to participate in ongoing research projects and to attend courses and congresses outside the school. They are encouraged to undertake internships in regulatory agencies or pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Students ordinarily have a prior degree in medicine or pharmacy.