Elkan Blout Professor of Environmental Genetics
Professor of Medicine, HMS
Director, Harvard Education and Research Center for Occupational Safety and Health
Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital
My major research interests are occupational, environmental and molecular epidemiology. I have been interested in studying the impact of exposures to various pollutants on health and the interactions between host factors (genetic and acquired susceptibility), and environmental exposures in producing acute and chronic diseases. This research is part of an emerging field known as molecular epidemiology. I have been active in developing new methods for assessing health effects after exposure to pollutants and have a very active interest in international occupational and environmental health studies.
In collaboration with other investigators in our school, I have developed new biologic markers used in examination of pollutant-induced diseases such as lung cancer, bladder cancer, skin cancer and upper respiratory-tract inflammation. For example, I have led a large multidisciplinary study of the molecular and genetic analysis of lung cancer with specific attention towards genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and genetic-environmental interactions, using PCR-based methods to determine genetic traits and mutations, as well as molecular methods to detect DNA adducts. This work has been a model for examining gene-environmental interactions for cancer development.
I have also led a project that examines respiratory effects of exposure to respiratory irritants contained in soot from fossil-fuel boilers. The study involves an epidemiologic evaluation of the acute respiratory effects of exposure as well as a detailed investigation including examination of molecular markers in nasal fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in exposed workers and controls.
In February, 2000 I received an award from NIH to study the molecular epidemiology of acute lung injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), a disorder that occurs after a toxic insult to the lung (e.g., sepsis, smoke inhalation). The syndrome has a high associated mortality, and little is known to prevent development. In this project I am in collaboration with MGH collaborators. We will examine the role of genetic susceptibility in the development of ARDS after a toxic exposure.
I have led a 20-year longitudinal study of respiratory disease in cotton-textile workers in Shanghai, China. The objectives of the study include determining the rate of loss in lung function among cotton dust-exposed workers at various levels of dust exposure and evaluating the relationship of exposure to gram-negative bacterial endotoxin and acute and chronic lung disease. We have expanded this study to include an assessment of relevant genetic factors, and an examination of reproductive effects of shift work and ergonomic factors at work as well as the exposures noted above.
I have enjoyed conducting occupational-health research on three continents: Asia, Africa, and North America. I have developed a wide network of collaboratives and contacts as we undertake new studies of the reproductive effects of exposure to chemicals (China), arsenic exposure and bladder and skin cancer (Taiwan and Bangladesh), exposure to indoor combustion products in respiratory disease (Central America), petrochemical exposures, brain neoplasms and leukemia in Asia (Taiwan), and respiratory effects of paraquat exposure (Africa). An exciting aspect of the international work is in methodological work, specifically, the development and adaptation of epidemiologic and laboratory techniques to the conditions of the industrializing world. The potential for effective interventions for disease prevention make this work particularly rewarding.
M.D., 1976, Tufts University
M.S., 1981, Harvard School of Public Health
M.P.H., 1980, Harvard School of Public Health