Growth of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners helped offset drop in psychiatrists treating Medicare patients

Mental health visit-female patient

For immediate release: September 6, 2022

Boston, MA—The mental health system is increasingly reliant on psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners (PMHNPs) to meet the psychiatric needs of Medicare patients, according to a new study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health.

“We were surprised by the degree to which PMHNPs are the de facto mental health prescribers in parts of the country,” said corresponding author Michael Barnett, associate professor of health policy and management at Harvard Chan School. “In the states where PMHNPs have no restrictions on prescribing medications, these providers account for 50% of all mental health prescriber visits in rural areas, which was much greater than we had anticipated.”

The study was published in the September 2022 issue of Health Affairs.

Mental health access is a public health crisis that the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated. While demand for mental health treatment is soaring, the supply of psychiatrists accepting insurance is dropping, particularly in rural areas.

To assess how the mental health workforce and patient population have changed over time, Barnett and his colleagues analyzed fee-for-service Medicare claims during 2011-2019. The team focused on the number of PMHNPs and psychiatrists billing Medicare, the volume of outpatient and psychiatric services by provider group, and how these numbers varied by rurality and scope-of-practice regulations, which can restrict whether a PMHNP is able to prescribe medications.

The findings showed that PMHNPs provided nearly 1 in 3 mental health prescriber visits to Medicare patients nationally by 2019. The number of PMHNPs also increased 162% during 2011-2019, while psychiatrists billing Medicare dropped by 6%. During this period, without growth in the PMHNP workforce, there would have been a decline of nearly 30% in mental health specialist visits in Medicare. Instead, the drop was 12%.

“This work puts the spotlight on PMHNPs as a critical part of the mental health workforce,” said Barnett. “This is so important because we desperately need new solutions to address the current mental health crisis in this country. Policy that targets the PMHNP workforce could be a key part of the national effort to expand mental health access.”

Co-author Arno Cai is also from Harvard Chan School.

This research was supported by the National Institute on Aging (K23 AG058806-01) and the National Institute of Mental Health (R01 MH112829-01) in the National Institutes of Health.

“Trends In Mental Health Care Delivery By Psychiatrists And Nurse Practitioners In Medicare, 2011–19,” Arno Cai, Ateev Mehrotra, Hayley D. Germack, Alisa B. Busch, Haiden A. Huskamp, and Michael L. Barnett, Health Affairs, September 2022, doi: 10.1377/ hlthaff.2022.00289.

Visit the Harvard Chan School website for the latest newspress releases, and multimedia offerings.

Photo: iStock

For more information:

Nicole Rura


Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health brings together dedicated experts from many disciplines to educate new generations of global health leaders and produce powerful ideas that improve the lives and health of people everywhere. As a community of leading scientists, educators, and students, we work together to take innovative ideas from the laboratory to people’s lives—not only making scientific breakthroughs, but also working to change individual behaviors, public policies, and health care practices. Each year, more than 400 faculty members at Harvard Chan School teach 1,000-plus full-time students from around the world and train thousands more through online and executive education courses. Founded in 1913 as the Harvard-MIT School of Health Officers, the School is recognized as America’s oldest professional training program in public health.