Lethal Means Counseling Bibliography

Brent DA, Baugher M, Birmaher B, et al. Compliance with recommendations to remove firearms in families participating in a clinical trial for adolescent depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000;39:1220-1225.

Bryan CJ, Stone SL, Rudd MD. A practical, evidence-based approach for means-restriction counseling with suicidal patients. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2011; 42(5):339-346.

  • This article reviews the evidence for means restriction as well as common barriers to conducting lethal means counseling, then offers procedures and tools for incorporating this topic into routine clinical care.

Fendrich M, Kruesi MJ, Wislar JS, Pokorny S, Dontes A, Erickson T. Implementing means restriction education in urban EDs. Am J Emerg Med. 1998;16(3):257-61.

Grossman, J. Dontes, A., Kruesi, M., Pennington, J. & Fendrich, M. Emergency nurses’ responses to a survey about means restriction: an adolescent suicide prevention strategy. Journal of American Psychiatric Nurses Association. 2003;9:77-85.

Giggie MA, Olvera RL, Joshi MN. Screening for risk factors associated with violence in pediatric patients presenting to a psychiatric emergency department. J Psychiatr Pract. 2007 Jul;13(4):246-52.

Johnson, Rene M; Frank, Elaine; Ciocca, Mark; Barber, Catherine. Training mental health providers to reduce at-risk patients’ access to lethal means of suicide: Evaluation of the CALM project. Archives of Suicide Research. 2011 15(3):259-264.

Khazanov GK, Keddem S, Hoskins K, et al. Stakeholder perceptions of lethal means safety counseling: A qualitative systematic review. Front Psychiatry. 2022;13:993415. Published 2022 Oct 20. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2022.993415

Kruesi M, Grossman J, Pennington J, Woodward P, Duda D, Hirsch J. Suicide and violence prevention: Parent education in the emergency department. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999; 38(3):250-255.

McManus BL, Kruesi M, Dontes AE, et al. Child and adolescent suicide attempts: an opportunity for emergency departments to provide injury prevention education. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;15: 357-360.

Oslin DW, Zubritsky C, Brown G, Mullahy M, Puliafico A, Ten Have T. Managing suicide risk in late life: access to firearms as a public health risk. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2004;12(1):30-6.

Price JH, Kinnison A, Dake JA, Thompson AJ, Price JA. Psychiatrists’ practices and perceptions regarding anticipatory guidance on firearms.Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(5):370-3.

Sale E, Hendricks M, Weil V, Miller C, Perkins S, McCudden S. Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM): An Evaluation of a Suicide Prevention Means Restriction Training Program for Mental Health Providers. Community Ment Health J. 2018;54(3):293-301. doi:10.1007/s10597-017-0190-z

Siry BJ, Knoepke CE, Ernestus SM, Matlock DD, Betz ME. Lethal Means Counseling for Suicidal Adults in the Emergency Department: A Qualitative Study. West J Emerg Med. 2021;22(3):471-477. Published 2021 May 7. doi:10.5811/westjem.2021.8.49485

Slovak K and Brewer TW. Suicide and firearm means restriction:  Can training make a difference? Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 2010;40(1):63-73.