Carbon Monoxide Content of Domestic Gas

Clarke RV. Crime as opportunity: A note on domestic gas suicide in Britain and the Netherlands. Br J Crim Delinq and Dev Soc Beh.  1989; 29(1):35-.

Kreeitman N. The coal gas story: United Kingdom suicide rates, 1960-1971. Brit J Prev Soc Med. 1976; 30:85-93.

Lester D, Abe K. The effect of restricting access to lethal methods for suicide: A study of suicide by domestic gas in Japan. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1989; 80(2): 180-2.

Lester D. The effect of the detoxification of domestic gas in Switzerland on the suicide rate. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1990 Nov;82(5):383-4.

Lester D. The effects of detoxification of domestic gas on suicide in the United States. Am J Public Health. 1990 Jan;80(1):80-1.

Lester D. Effects of detoxification of domestic gas on suicide in The Netherlands. Psychol Rep. 1991 Feb;68(1):202. (Unlike the others, this did not find a reduction in the suicide rate following detoxification of domestic gas.)

Liu KY, Beautrais A, Caine E, Chan K, Chao A, Conwell Y, Law C, Lee D, Li P, Yip P. Charcoal burning suicides in Hong Kong and urban Taiwan: An illustration of the impact of a novel suicide method on overall regional rates. J Epi Comm Hlth. 2007; 61:248-53.



Eddleston M, Gunnell D. Preventing suicide through pesticide regulation. Lancet Psychiatry. 2020;7(1):9-11. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30478-X

Eddleston M. Banning toxic pesticides is effective at preventing suicides in South Asia. BMJ. 2023;382:1838. Published 2023 Aug 16. doi:10.1136/bmj.p1838

Eddleston M, Nagami H, Lin CY, Davis ML, Chang SS. Pesticide use, agricultural outputs, and pesticide poisoning deaths in Japan. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022;60(8):933-941. doi:10.1080/15563650.2022.2064868

van Schalkwyk MCI, Collin J, Eddleston M, et al. Conceptualising the commercial determinants of suicide: broadening the lens on suicide and self-harm prevention. Lancet Psychiatry. 2023;10(5):363-370. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(23)00043-3

Rambabu L, Mohamed F, Dhanarisi J, et al. Acute phenthoate self-poisoning: a prospective case series. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022;60(2):214-220. doi:10.1080/15563650.2021.1917596

Dabholkar S, Pirani S, Davis M, Khan M, Eddleston M. Suicides by pesticide ingestion in Pakistan and the impact of pesticide regulation. BMC Public Health. 2023;23(1):676. Published 2023 Apr 11. doi:10.1186/s12889-023-15505-1

Bonvoisin T, Utyasheva L, Knipe D, Gunnell D, Eddleston M. Suicide by pesticide poisoning in India: a review of pesticide regulations and their impact on suicide trends. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):251. Published 2020 Feb 19. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-8339-z

Ghimire R, Utyasheva L, Pokhrel M, et al. Intentional pesticide poisoning and pesticide suicides in Nepal. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2022;60(1):46-52. doi:10.1080/15563650.2021.1935993

Thomas K, Chang SS, Gunnell D. Suicide epidemics: the impact of newly emerging methods on overall suicide rates – a time trends study. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:314. Published 2011 May 14. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-314

Eddleston M, Karalliedde L, Buckley N, Fernando R, Hutchinson G, Isbister G, et al. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world-a minimum pesticide list. Lancet. 2002; 360 (9340): 1163-7.

Gunnell D, Fernando R, Hewagama M, Priyangika WD, Konradsen F, Eddleston M. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka. Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Dec;36(6):1235-42.

Gunnell D, Eddleston M. Suicide by intentional ingestion of pesticides: a continuing tragedy in developing countries. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Dec;32(6):902-9.

Konradsen F, Pieris R, Weerasinghe M, van der Hoek W, Eddleston M, Dawson AH. Community uptake of safe storage boxes to reduce self-poisoning from pesticides in rural Sri Lanka. BMC Public Health. 2007; 26 (7): 13.

Konradsen F, Dawson AH, Eddleston M, Gunnell D. Pesticide self-poisoning: thinking outside the box. Lancet. 2007; 369 (9557): 169-70.


Hawton K, Townsend E, Deeks J, Appleby L, Gunnell D, Bennewith O and Cooper J. Effects of legislation restricting pack size of paracetamol and salicylate on self-poisoning in the United Kingdom: before and after study. British Medical Journal. 2001; 322: 1-7. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/reprint/322/7296/1203.pdf.

Hawton K. United Kingdom legislation on pack sizes of analgesics: background, rationale and effects on suicide and deliberate self-harm. Suicide and Life Threat Behav. 2002; 32:223-229.

Hawton K, Simkin S, Deeks J. Co-proxamol and suicide: A study of national mortality statistics and local non-fatal self-poisonings. British Medical Journal. 2003; 326(7397):1006-08.

Hawton K, Simkin S, Deeks J, Cooper J, Johnston A, Waters K, et al. United Kingdom legislation on analgesic packs: before and after study of long term effect on poisonings. British Medical Journal. 2004;329(7474):1076. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/329/7474/1076.

Nordentoft M. Restriction in availability of drugs used for suicide. Crisis. 2007; 28(1):44-49.

A literature review on deliberate self poisoning and the effect of restricting access to drugs was conducted. The findings support suicide prevention strategies that restrict the availability of drugs with high case fatality.